2007年8月31日 星期五

The long-promised “semantic” web is starting to take shape

Improving the internet

The web: some antics

Aug 28th 2007
From Economist.com

The long-promised “semantic” web is starting to take shape

FOR all the tricks that the world wide web can perform, it still resembles a collection of one-trick ponies rather than a concerted cavalry charge. You can book an airline ticket, hire a car at your destination, arrange concert tickets for the evening that you arrive and even get directions from the airport to the concert hall. But you have to do it all yourself, one element at a time. You cannot delegate the process to a website as you might delegate it to your secretary or your long-suffering spouse.

You can, however, delegate some things. At least, you can if you are Rael Dornfest, a technologist and entrepreneur from Portland, Oregon. When Mr Dornfest e-mails his business partners about meetings and interesting titbits worth archiving, he copies the e-mail to his assistant, Sandy. Though she cannot yet organise his evenings in foreign cities, she can run his diary. She also runs his address book and forwards reminders from his wife to his mobile phone without being asked.

Sandy, of course, is not a person. She is a piece of software that Mr Dornfest and his colleagues are developing and whom, once she is thoroughly tested, he hopes to sell to a wider world. She is one example of a long-promised technological advance: the semantic web.

The semantic web is so called because it aspires to make the web readable by machines as well as humans, by adding special tags, technically known as metadata, to its pages. Whereas the web today provides links between documents which humans read and extract meaning from, the semantic web aims to provide computers with the means to extract useful information from data accessible on the internet, be it on web pages, in calendars or inside spreadsheets.

It does so using a trio of new technologies: the Resource Description Framework (RDF), the Web Ontology Language (OWL), and the SPARQL query language. Together, they allow computers to group objects and their features—from prices and measurements to locations and user ratings—into meaningful relationships and hierarchies, by analysing their associated metadata.

The idea is that eventually such metadata will be incorporated into every web page and electronic document. But that is not the case at the moment, so a further layer of software is needed to infer the metadata from web pages, e-mails and other electronic documents. Whatever their origin, the metadata labels can then be used to do useful things. A piece of software can, for example, compare goods that are similar but not identical and then recommend the best (or the cheapest, or the best value for money) to a potential customer. In the field of travel, attaching metadata to everything makes it possible to link up airline schedules, car rental and hotel bookings.

If this sounds eerily similar to the kind of thing a human travel agent used to do in the days before the non-semantic web almost killed his profession, that is exactly what Gregg Brockway has in mind. Mr Brockway is the co-founder of TripIt, a firm based in San Francisco. His intention is that people should be able to dump all of their travel details (electronic tickets, car-hire bookings, hotel reservations and so on) straight from any reservation site into a central repository, which TripIt will run. Then RDF, OWL and SPARQL—or, at least, TripIt’s implementations of them—will sort the information. The software will group the data appropriately and annotate the result with weather forecasts, driving directions, restaurant recommendations and even the travel plans of friends and family. It will then send the results back to the user—or, in the case of the driving directions, directly to the car’s navigation device.

Another area where the semantic web may make a contribution is personal finance. Even if they have not heard the term, most people will be familiar with the idea of what a company called Wesabe refers to as “bank puke”. This firm, which is also based in San Francisco, plans to make money by clearing up such puke and turning it into useful information. The idea is that its customers will be able to feed their bank statements, credit-card accounts and so on into the system as if they were throwing reams of paper onto an accountant’s desk.

Wesabe’s software sifts through all the transactions and makes comparisons between users. It can then do some of the things that a human financial adviser might, such as recommending to a customer a different car-repair shop if other customers in the same area are using a cheaper one. Not yet, perhaps, a cavalry charge. But not a bad performance of formation riding.

Li-Fung and ZARA


2007年4月8日看NHK才知道ZARA是世界第三(前二名都是美國) 營業額約一兆數百億日元

鎖定高消費能力年輕客群的ZARA服裝品牌享譽全球,不僅其擁有約400名設計師、每年設計出逾1萬款時裝的實力,讓多數服裝業者難出其項背,更重要的 是,ZARA擁有極高效率的供應鏈體系,從設計、製造到上架只要12天,相較於許多國際級服裝業者仍需要3~4個月,競爭力當然強很多,然而ZARA如何 塑造出高效率的供應鏈體系?

在ZARA身處的西班牙製造基地,集結約20家布料剪裁印染業者,以及約500家成衣製作廠,該製造基地的地下幾乎被挖空,設立四通八達的地下傳輸帶(最 遠長達20公里),所有物料需求可即時傳送,尤其ZARA配貨中心更是大得驚人,總面積500萬平方英呎(約90個足球場),內有密密麻麻通道連結衛星工 廠及出貨月台,整個供應鏈體系幾乎讓ZARA達到接單後立即生產出貨的零庫存目標。


從ZARA成功經驗,我們看到的不僅是400多名被形容是空中飛人(成年累月穿梭在海外各國吸取最新流行資訊)的設計師,以及其世界級供應鏈所造就快速、 少量、多款的世界級競爭力,更重要的是,ZARA所擁有世界級競爭力,主要來自於其具備「世界級思維」,ZARA為塑造世界一流品牌的高附加價值,願意投 巨資在設計師身上,願意花大錢建置高效率物流系統,這種膽識及思維才是其成功最重要關鍵。

Zara is the flagship chain store for the Spanish Inditex Group, which also owns brands such as Massimo Dutti, Pull and Bear, Stradivarius and Bershka. The group is headquartered in A Coru�a, Galicia, Spain, where the first Zara store opened in 1975. Today, Zara is probably the world's fastest growing retailer with over 2,700 stores around the world in 60 countries (three times the 2000 figure). In March 2006, the group overtook Sweden's Hennes & Mauritz to become Europe's largest fashion retailer.

Zara has a unique business model that has enabled it to expand and compete with quality brands at affordable prices. For instance, it is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks [1] to develop a new product and get it to stores, compared with a nine-month industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs each year. Zara has resisted the industry-wide trend towards transferring production to low-cost countries. Perhaps its most unusual strategy was its policy of zero advertising; the company preferred to invest a percentage of revenues in opening new stores instead.

Zara was described by Louis Vuitton fashion director Daniel Piette as "possibly the most innovative and devastating retailer in the world".


  1. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/apr2006/gb20060404_167078.htm?chan=innovation_branding_brand+profiles

External links

Li-Fung都取材《天下》 ----不過讀者可以去商務買他們代理的香港書

現在,利豐就像一個虛擬的「日不落製造帝國」,營運版圖橫跨四十個國家,全球有八千三百家工廠、一百六十萬名員工不在利豐名下,卻甘願天天二十四小時待 命,幫它生產成衣、玩具及各種家用品。這些產品最後會被擺放到「維多莉亞的祕密」、「American Eagle」及迪士尼等世界知名零售通路或品牌商的貨架上。




「你去想一想,如果我要minimize(最小化)我的cost(成本) to我的consumer(客戶),應該注意什麼呢?就問自己這個問題了,」至今,馮國經仍像是個學者,條理分明地說,「我們整個利豐的基本概念,就專注在供應鏈管理。」



舉例來說,利豐要為客戶生產一件雪衣,他們善用比較優勢,從世界各地國家搜尋最佳原料,像內襯來自台灣,衣服標籤來自香港,拉鏈則是來自日本。最 後,送到勞力成本低廉的中國完成組裝工作。即使下回再接到同樣的訂單,利豐會根據全球配合工廠的生產狀況,調配出和上一次訂單截然不同的生產組合。

「就像一個分解者,把生產過程cut into specific components(切成特定的零件),哪一個供應商做得最有效率,就給誰做,」馮國經比喻。




提供價值,也讓利豐更被需要。 馮國經說,現在的利豐已從一個「中間人」轉型成「整合者」。

「中間人是broker,左手交右手,我沒有附加價值,my only value is market carrying(我唯一的價值是把市場帶進來),」他語調變快,雙手在空中揮舞地說,「可是如果我是整合者,那我變成非常重要,如果沒有我,客戶沒辦法 在全球找到不同,而且最高效率的供應商來做事。」











而利豐和伙伴們之間,又是「有點黏又不太黏」的微妙關係。馮國經形容,就像是「loose network」(鬆的網絡)。



馮國經說,因為利豐有不同的客戶群,今天伙伴們同利豐合作,就有機會從造低檔產品升級到高檔產品。他舉例,有些大型零售商,每年都找固定的供應商做同樣的款式,但價格年年低一○%,「那就是grind you into the ground (擠壓到沒有生存空間)。」




二○○三年開始,利豐把供應鏈管理的優勢再往上升級,走向品牌授權的新版圖。利豐陸續拿到Levi Strauss & Co、Royal Velvet以及Tommy Hilfiger等世界知名品牌的設計、生產及推銷工作。



他連珠炮似地說,「現在因為我打散了supply chain(供應鏈),不是集中在一個地方造,等於把全球供應鏈『民主化』。讓愈來愈多中小企業可以參與全球生產,讓他們有機會going global very early(非常早走向國際)。」









在《百年利豐》書中採訪了一位在利豐工作五十三年的會計,她回憶,每年農曆年三十晚上,老闆(指馮國經和馮國綸兄弟)一定會在灣仔會展中心和全體 職員一起吃團圓飯,年年都訂一百席,連斟茶倒水的阿嬸都請。每次加夜班,馮國綸都叫司機開車送工人回家。這位會計一直工作到七十多歲,老闆仍然聘請她。




2007年8月30日 星期四

“fair-value” or market-based accounting

Economics focus

A book-keeping error

Aug 30th 2007
From The Economist print edition

The accounting principle that is meant to capture fair value might end up distorting it

Illustration by JAC

AS THE old joke goes, there are three types of accountant: those who can count and those who cannot. What and how they count is often contentious. A long-fermenting issue is how far “fair-value” accounting, which uses up-to-the-minute market information to price assets, should be pushed in banking. The bodies that set accountancy standards believe the more accurate disclosures are, the better. Regulators meanwhile have fretted that market-based accounting would increase fluctuations in banks' earnings and capital, which might increase risks to financial stability. And commercial banks are reluctant to expose the idiosyncrasies of their loan books to the glare of market scrutiny.

The attractions of fair-value accounts are straightforward. By basing values on recent prices (“marking to market”), they paint a truer picture of a firm's financial health than historical-cost measures. These gauge net worth from the arbitrary dates when assets and liabilities were first booked. In principle, fair-value accounting makes a firm's viability plainer and enables shareholders and regulators to spot financial trouble more quickly. Proponents say that market-based accounting would have limited the fallout from America's savings-and-loan crisis and stopped the rot from Japan's non-performing loans much earlier.

An arbitrary past versus a distorted present

New research suggests that the increasing reach of fair-value accounting might be a mixed blessing. A paper* by Guillaume Plantin of the London Business School, Haresh Sapra of the University of Chicago and Hyun Song Shin of Princeton University concludes that fair-value accounting could sometimes generate fluctuations in asset values that distort the very price information that it puts such store by.

The paper examines the incentives of a bank faced with a choice between selling a loan or keeping it on the balance sheet. Because the bank knows its borrower better than anyone else, it has the best idea of what the loan is really worth. Its managers are rewarded according to the accounting profit of the bank.

If loans are valued at historical cost and market values are rising, the loans are likely to be sold if this is the only way of realising profit, even if the market undervalues them. The banks' managers take a profit and get paid accordingly, although shareholders would be better off if the loans were kept. Fair-value accounting gets around this agency problem. Loans do not have to be sold to cash in on their rising value: marking the assets to their market value has the same beneficial effect on profits and on managers' pay.

However, in the wrong circumstances fair-value accounting could also induce wasteful sales—of long-term, illiquid loans. Left on the books and marked to market, a loan will be valued at the price at which others have managed to sell. But when there are only a few potential buyers, that may be especially low. So managers will be tempted to sell in the hope of a better price. Because all banks with similar assets face the same incentives, they will all sell, driving the price down. Their shareholders would have been better off had the loans been kept until they fell due. The temptation to sell is greater for longer-term loans.

In this way, a fair-value regime can itself distort the very prices that are supposed to reflect the true worth of assets. The prospect of lower prices can encourage selling which drives down prices further. The information derived from market prices becomes corrupted, and the result is a growing divergence between reported net worth and true value.

This theoretical model is a challenge to the ideal of fair-value accounting: that more information is always better. Although it is technically feasible to mark to market even idiosyncratic assets such as loans to small businesses, it might not be desirable. The authors point to a well-established principle in economics, that incremental moves towards perfect competition are not always good. Eliminating one market imperfection (such as poor information) need not bring the ideal of a frictionless economy closer, because this may magnify the effect of remaining distortions (such as managerial short-termism or illiquid markets).

The paper also underlines some lessons about market liquidity that have been painfully learned outside of academia in the recent market troubles. There is a fair chance that asset markets will stay liquid (in the sense that willing sellers are matched with willing buyers), as long as the actions of market participants are essentially random. But anything that co-ordinates the actions of sellers—in this case, the disclosure required by fair-value accounting—can easily lead to sharp movements in asset prices.

Is the model of self-defeating co-ordinated selling very realistic? Recently, for example, Bear Stearns, a Wall Street investment bank, held off from selling assets into an illiquid market because the transaction prices would have set a nasty benchmark for its other portfolios. So illiquidity prevented asset sales rather than induced them. Mr Shin replies that in instances like this, where there happens to be a dominant holder of assets, there is less chance of sales into a falling market.

Although more accurate disclosure of balance sheets is desirable, the work of Mr Shin and his colleagues is a reminder that there are always trade-offs to any policy change. These authors put their argument in stark terms: “The choice between these measurement regimes boils down to a dilemma between ignoring price signals, or relying on their degraded versions.” In their advocacy of fair-value accounting, accountants are rightly pursuing the interests of investors. But policymakers have to worry about wider issues. Accountancy may be too important to be left solely to accountants. Even the ones that can count.

* “Marking-to-Market: Panacea or Pandora's Box?” Forthcoming in the Journal of Accounting Research.

2007年8月29日 星期三


製造状況を細かく「見える化」 常に目を光らせて品質ロス半減へ

- 連載目次へ

液晶や半導体などの製造現場を陰で支えているのが産業機械である。三菱電機はこの産業機械部門で、品質改善 活動に取り組んでいる。柱は、製造工程の「見える化」だ。それを実現するために製造設備をネットワークでつなぐ「e-F@ctory」を構築した。不良品 による品質ロスが半減するなど効果が出ている。

 トヨタ流改革など業務改善に挑む企業がこぞって取り組むのが「見える化」だ。整理整頓などによって改善すべきポイントを見つけやすくするものだ。 見える化を進めるには、まずは現状把握が必要になる。「在庫」のように定量的に測れればよいが、製造ラインや製造設備といったものだと容易ではない。担当 者がストップウオッチ片手に各工程に張り付くなど現状把握するだけでも人手と時間がかかってしまう。

 この難題を克服し、「製造状況の見える化」で成果を上げているのが、三菱電機の産業機械部門である。2003年から名古屋製作所で取り組んでいる 「e-F@ctory」がそれだ。簡単にいえば、各工程の製造設備が正常に稼働しているかどうかといった情報をリアルタイムで収集するものである。




 サーボモーターの性能が悪ければ、ユーザー企業の製造計画にも大きな影響を与える。サーボモーターが製造停止の原因となれば賠償請求を受けかねな い。停止時間など影響を受けた度合いを算出され、億円単位の損害賠償でさえあり得るのだ。三菱電機にとっては、製造不良は許されない。万が一不良があった としても、出荷前に何とか食い止める仕組みが必要だった。


 これまで同社では、不良を発見するために、最終検査工程で動作確認などを入念に実施するとともに、各工程でも抜き取り検査で品質に目を光らせてい た。だが、最終検査で不良を発見しても、どの工程が問題だったのかはすぐには分からず、手を施しづらかった。再発を防ぐため、根本的な原因がどこにあるの かを突き止めるのに2~3日間かかることもあったという。

 同様に製造工程のムダを改善しようとする場合でも、どこに課題点があるのか把握しづらかったという。担当者が各工程の製造設備のそばでストップウ オッチ片手に数週間張り付いてデータを収集していた。「知恵をひねる以前に、事前準備に多大な労力がかかっていたのが実態だった」とe-F@ctory技 術企画の渡部裕二グループマネージャーは振り返る。いくら改善のアイデアが思い浮かんでもその検証に時間がかかってしまっていた。

 不良の発見においても工程のムダ取りにおいても、人手による限界を感じていた渡部グループマネージャーらが注目したのが、工場内に張りめぐらせて あるネットワークだった。通信装置を取り付けたレーザー加工機や産業ロボットをつないで制御するための、「MELSECNET」と呼ぶ通信網である。


 この通信網は1980年代から使用しているが、機械を制御するためだけに活用していた。だが発想を変えれば、品質改善にも活用できることに気づい た。「機械を制御する」という一方向だけでなく、「制御した実績情報」という逆方向の情報を収集する。すべての製造設備から情報収集することで、リアルタ イムに監視できている状態となり、「製造工程の見える化」が実現できると渡部グループマネージャーらは考えたのだ。





 こうして集めた情報を、不良を発見してから解決策を立てるまでの時間短縮に活用する。各製造設備から届く実績が、あらかじめ設定した基準値を外れ ていると、事務棟などばらばらの場所にいる関係者全員に同報メールで一斉に知らせるとともに、問題が発生した設備に赤いランプが点灯する。これまではライ ンリーダーから班長へ報告といったバケツリレー方式での情報伝達だった。



 例えばハンダ不良によるトラブルが発生したとする。データベースを検索することで、過去に発生した類似のケースが見つかる。そのケースによると、 ハンダ漕の温度管理機能が機能していないことが原因だった。今回も同様の疑いがあるので、ハンダ漕を確認することから始められるといった具合だ。これまで は熟練の担当者に聞いて判断を仰ぐなど属人化していた。



 新システムにより、製造計画の達成に責任を持つ課長クラスまで現場の状況が共有できている。原因究明に時間をかけるべきか、ほかの品目に切り替え るべきかといった意思決定を早くできる。「現場はどうしても自分たちで何とかしようとしてしまう。責任者まで情報を共有できることで早く決断できるように なった」と渡部グループマネージャーは話す。

 品質トラブルを未然に防ぐうえでも、e-F@ctoryが役立つ。その1つが、治具や工具の交換時期を通知する機能である。早く交換し過ぎてしま えば効率が悪く、適切なタイミングを逸すると不良品を発生させる危険がある。これまでは熟練工の経験と勘に頼っていたため、タイミングがまちまちだった。 各製造設備から実績に加えて金型や治具の使用回数も送られ、これらをデータベースに蓄積している。あらかじめ交換周期といった条件を設定しておくことで、 担当者に通知する。適切なタイミングで確実に交換できるようになった。

 治具などの使用回数も含めた製造設備からの実績を、改善活動のヒント探しに生かす。トラブルが発生する前に先回りして課題を見つけ、改善策を講じ るためだ。データベースには、担当者が現場で長期間ストップウオッチで測らなくても基礎情報が集まっている。「各製造設備における総停止時間のワースト 3」といったように、様々な角度から検索できる。何を優先課題とすべきなのかが明確になる。課題が見えているので、どう解決するかという本質的な改善活動 へすぐに取り掛かることができる。





(西 雄大=日経情報ストラテジー  [2007/08/30]


Morris H. Hansen as a transforming leader轉型組織之領導能力-風範"

W. Edwards Deming 的 {產官學一體適用的新經濟學} (The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education - 2nd Edition)

不過 我想還有許多東西可以深入思考
A System of Profound Knowledge 這章--92 (24)---之後

整章談 Leadership
Deming 舉的領導轉型之範例是他的好有友 Morris H. Hansen ( 1911-1990 附錄的 紐約時報的訃文可以補充 Deming 這章最內行人的讚賞

就可以知道 Deming這本作品

"品質歷史考古學家" 1927 or 1928

2007/08/29 08:33

記得當年{亞洲周刊}有篇香港寫的書介 感謝Deming.....

"品質歷史考古學家" (第三頁)


譬如說 在 Shewhart and Control Charts 一章中
談到他(W. E. D.)有幸在1927年認識 Shewhart.....
不過 他在1939年為 Shewhart的書寫 Foreword 時
'...it was he who introduced me some of the modern statistical literature back in 1928.'
換句話說說 究竟是1927或1928 或都說得通

Wikipedia 的Walter A. Shewhart 條 說他逝世於某村
與 Deming說的 Mountain Lakes 不同 表示搬過家
現在我們可以上網知道Mountain Lakes 人口才四千多

戴老師將這對朋友的情誼說 ".....他家中度過許多夜晚" (p.192}
好像不同....這些都是細微處 寫下供後世人參考

Morris H. Hansen, 79, Census Statistician

Published: October 12, 1990

LEAD: Morris Howard Hansen, an internationally known statistician who was former associate director for research and development at the United States Bureau of Census, died Tuesday at Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington. He was 79 years old and lived in Rockville, Md.

Morris Howard Hansen, an internationally known statistician who was former associate director for research and development at the United States Bureau of Census, died Tuesday at Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington. He was 79 years old and lived in Rockville, Md.

He died of heart and kidney failure, a family spokesman said.

Mr. Hansen joined the Census Bureau in 1935, after graduating from the University of Wyoming. He was a leader in the development of methodology for samplings and surveys and contributed to the mathematical theories that govern the field. He was also a consultant to foreign governments.

He retired from the Census Bureau in 1968 and joined a private polling organization, Westat, Inc., where he was chairman of the board.

He was the recipient of the 1962 Rockefeller Public Service Award and served as president of the American Statistical Association and of the Institute for Mathematical Statistics.

He is survived by his wife, Eleonore; two sons, Morris of San Jose, Calif., and James of Silver Spring, Md.; two daughters, Evelyn Allin of Germantown, Md., and Kristine Hare of Annapolis, Md.; and eight grandchildren.

2007年8月28日 星期二

中華航空維修 MIX-UP 或設計問題

今天讀報 如WSJ 說中華航空最可能是維修 MIX-UP
心想 這 或設計問題

然後 再讀到全世界發現四起類似狀況....

The verb mix up has 2 meanings:

Meaning #1: assemble without order or sense
Synonyms: jumble, confuse

Meaning #2: cause to be perplexed or confounded
Synonym: stump

又有737飛機螺帽鬆油箱損 FAA再發緊急指令
08/29/07 12:49:57
又有737飛機螺帽鬆油箱損 FAA再發緊急指令




ボルト脱落が4件見つかる 目視点検の期限を前倒し

2007年8月29日 13時52分

 那覇空港で中華航空機が炎上した事故を受け、事故の起きたボーイング737-800型と同系列機について、世界各国の航空会社が事故原因とされる 主翼前部のスラット(高揚力装置)のボルト部分を点検したところ、海外で部品の脱落が4件見つかっていたことが29日、分かった。




中華航空那霸火燒機事件後,雖然日方一直把矛頭指向華航維修,但美國聯邦航空總署(FAA)前天對全球發布緊急強制指令(EMERGENCY AD),要求全球兩千三百架新一代波音七三七型客機全面檢修造成華航這起事件的翼前縫條(slat)。

國內飛安專家指出,FAA過去很少會發布這種最高級的強制指令,就算是波音原廠去年也只證實曾發生兩起五號翼前縫條螺絲鬆脫的情形,並發出安全建議 (SERVICE LETTER),即建議有這型飛機的業者加強檢修,但因為不是強制的技術指令,航空公司不一定要採納。當時FAA根本不動聲色。








 【ワシントン=藤井一明】那覇空港で起きた中華航空機の炎上事故を受け、米連邦航空局(FAA)は同型のボーイング「737」型機について、火災を招い た燃料漏れの原因と指摘されているボルトやナットの点検を航空各社に指示した。25日付で緊急の指令を出し、24日以内に点検とナットの締め付けを終える よう求めた。



評論--Price is not the only cost of Acer's acquisition

我對於Acer 併購 Gateway 的消息沒有意見
不過今天在Acer 有關係的{電子時報}看到
這只是當初 HP併購 Compaq 天價的十分之一

Compaq是什麼樣的公司 (它併過 Digital)

不過 生意重點在"business"

Wednesday, August 29, 2007 8:02 A.M.

Quote from W. Edwards Deming:
Price is not the only cost.

The W. Edwards Deming Institute® is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1993 by noted consultant Dr. W. Edwards Deming.

The aim of the Institute is to foster understanding of The Deming System of Profound Knowledge™ to advance commerce, prosperity and peace.

New Risks Emerge At Giant Three Gorges Dam



In China, New Risks Emerge At Giant Three Gorges Dam

By Shai Oster
Word Count: 2,165

MIAOHE VILLAGE, China -- China's vaunted engineering marvel, the Three Gorges Dam, drew fierce criticism during its construction for uprooting more than a million people and manhandling the Yangtze River basin. Now, a year after completion, the project has new problems -- including landslides, water pollution and suggestions that the dam could contribute to the very flooding it was built to prevent.

Geologists say the massive weight of water behind the Three Gorges Dam has begun to erode the Yangtze's steep shores at several spots. That, along with frequent fluctuations in water levels, has triggered a series of landslides and ...


Trouble at Three Gorges
China's most vaunted engineering marvel, the Three Gorges Dam, is suffering a series of unforeseen problems, raising new doubts about the project -- and the country's efforts to control its environment.
Shai Oster

The dam's problems extend beyond the weakening ground. Scientists warn that the Three Gorges Reservoir is quickly filling up with pollution from factories, fertilizer runoff and untreated sewage, fostering toxic algae blooms that are threatening downstream water s



DATE 2007/08/29
  【日經BP社報導】 夏普與大阪大學研究所工學研究科就共同研究“環保型”製造技術達成協定。截止2009年3月31日,大阪大學6名教員及夏普6名員工合計12人將在大阪大學研究所超精密科學研究中心進行共同研究。預計研究經費總額為1億日元。

  已達成基本協議的研究主題是“用水進行處理的清潔洗凈工藝”和“省資源省能源的薄膜形成技術”。前者為不使用藥品而使用超純水來洗浄的技術,該技術若 能實用化,除可以減輕給環境造成的不良影響外,還有利於降低設備投資、減少製造工序。後者為使多種氣體發生反應的薄膜形成技術,通過在氣體的選擇及配合等 方面下功夫,提高生成效率。

  大阪大學研究所擁有具備超純水和超高純度氣體供給功能的潔凈室。新技術計劃2010年後達到實用化,將用於夏普的製造基地。(記者:赤坂 麻實)



 基本合意に至った研究テーマは「水で処理するクリーンな洗浄プロセス」と「省資源で省エネルギーな薄膜形成技術」の2つだ。前者は,薬品を使わずに超純 水を用いるなどして洗浄する技術で,実用化すれば環境に対する悪影響を軽減できるほか,設備投資の抑制や生産工程の短縮につながるという。後者は,複数の ガスを反応させる薄膜形成技術において,そのガスの選定や組み合わせなどを工夫して高効率化を図るというものだ。





媲美。玉篇˙酉部:配,匹也;媲也。楚辭˙屈原˙大招:德譽配天,萬民 理只。

 合﹑結合。易經˙繫辭上:廣大配天地,變通配四時。孟子˙公孫丑上:其 為氣也,配義與道,無是餒也。


 女子嫁人。如:許配。三國演義˙第六回:丞相有女,欲配將軍之子。儒 林外史˙第三十七回:他家世兄賠嫁來的一個丫頭,他就配了姓嚴的管家了。分發﹑安排。如:支配分配配銷制度。舊唐書˙卷九十八˙裴耀 卿傳:耀卿躬自條理,科配得所。

 流放罪人到遠方。如:發配刺配。元˙張國賓˙合汗衫˙第一折:改 做誤傷人命,脊杖了六十,迭配殺門島去了。 






 女子嫁人。如:許配。三國演義˙第六回:丞相有女,欲配將軍之子。儒 林外史˙第三十七回:他家世兄賠嫁來的一個丫頭,他就配了姓嚴的管家了。分發﹑安排。如:支配分配配銷制度。舊唐書˙卷九十八˙裴耀 卿傳:耀卿躬自條理,科配得所。

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