2008年3月27日 星期四

Pressured, Motorola Splits in Two

我約22年前在這家公司當過品質保證經理 一路看它起伏 分家...

Pressured, Motorola Splits in Two

Published: March 27, 2008

After a two-month strategic review of its businesses, Motorola said on Wednesday that it would split itself into two separate publicly traded companies, spinning off its unprofitable mobile phone unit to investors.

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Chip East/Bloomberg News;

The investor Carl C. Icahn, left, lauded Motorola’s move, made by Gregory Q. Brown, right, the company’s chief executive.

The activist investor Carl C. Icahn, who has pressured Motorola to make such a move, said in a letter to its board that the announcement was “clearly a step in the right direction.” But he questioned Motorola’s commitment to moving quickly to solve its problems.

Gregory Q. Brown, Motorola’s chief executive, conceded that the main problem facing the company was its inability to come up with new products to replace the highly successful Razr, which was once a must-have phone but has faded from the scene.

He said he hoped that by turning the mobile devices business into its own unit, the company would have better luck attracting a new chief executive to run it and revive Motorola’s reputation.

“I think the challenges around Motorola have been about consistent execution,” Mr. Brown said. “That is why it is so important for us to expand and improve our product portfolio.”

Motorola’s influence and stock price have declined as rivals have taken the lead in creating interesting devices. Apple and its popular iPhone, for example, have captured the attention of buyers in the high-end market.

Executives of Motorola, which is based in Schaumburg, Ill., declined to talk about what new handsets it planned to offer consumers in the coming months.

Next week is a big one for the mobile business, as all of the top handset makers and wireless companies are gathering in Las Vegas for the industry’s largest American trade show, CTIA Wireless 2008. Many will take the opportunity to unveil flashy new phones that consumers will be snapping up over the next year.

But when it comes to Motorola, expectations are low.

“It will be interesting to see if they announce anything at CTIA,” said Roger Entner, a senior vice president at IAG Research.

Rivals aside, Motorola is also facing pressure from investors — in particular Mr. Icahn — who are dissatisfied with Motorola’s weak stock performance; the shares have dropped 44 percent in the last year. Cellphone production is the largest division of the company, with $18.99 billion in net sales in 2007, a 33 percent decline from a year earlier. Last year, the division lost $1.2 billion. Motorola’s other two units are smaller but profitable.

Analysts have questioned what effect a split would have on operations and on attracting solid executives to the troubled company. Already there has been an exodus of executives from Motorola, among them Stu Reed, the former chief of the mobile devices division.

“The danger is they are getting rid of the underperforming part of the business just to get rid of it,” Mr. Entner of IAG said. “The fear is in a year or two the operations will cease to exist.”

The profitable side of Motorola is decidedly less well known than the mobile devices division. It makes set-top boxes and products used by businesses and law enforcement officials for scanning and fingerprinting, as well as data and video communications systems for public agencies like fire departments.

Motorola expects to have the spinoff, which will be a tax-free distribution to shareholders, completed by 2009.

The move to split the company has long been advocated by Mr. Icahn, who led a fight last year for a seat on Motorola’s board. That effort failed, but it helped lead to the departure of the chief executive, Edward J. Zander, who was succeeded by Mr. Brown.

This week, Mr. Icahn sued Motorola, demanding internal board documents that he believed would show that it was lax in its oversight of management. Mr. Icahn is now leading a proxy fight for four Motorola board seats ahead of the company’s annual meeting in May.

In his letter to the board, Mr. Icahn also questioned why it would take so long to complete the split, and why it took “the threat of a proxy fight for you to make promises we all want to hear.” He did not return calls seeking comment.

There is still the chance that Mr. Brown and his board could decide to sell the mobile phone division if they do not find a suitable chief executive to run it. Selling it to a competitor was one option that Motorola pursued, according to a person involved in those discussions, but there were no takers.

Mr. Brown declined to discuss whether the division could be sold. “We’ve never had a ‘For Sale’ sign on it,” he said. “After our review, we believe this is the appropriate action.”

2008年3月21日 星期五



Bain Drops Buyout of 3Com

Bain Capital is terminating its proposed $2.2 billion buyout of 3Com after a U.S. government panel said it would take action to prohibit the transaction on national-security grounds.

on national-security grounds

華為員工“生死門” 看中國IT企業的人文關懷與管理
DATE 2008/03/20
  【日經BP社報導】 2008年3月6日中午,華為公司深圳坂田研發基地科研中心餐廳,正在3樓吃午飯的華為員工張立國突然起身躍下欄杆,墜地後被送到醫院不治身亡。而就在 10多天前,成都華為研發中心的員工李棟兵從四樓跳下身亡。在短短的十天時間內,華為發生了兩起員工跳樓事件。據統計,在不到兩年的時間內,華為已有6名 員工先後離開了人世。










  對於華為上述員工的死亡,各方表達了不同的觀點:張立國生前的部落格文章中提到:“創業很艱辛,我的心很累。”華為公司表示:“之前的員工接 連自殺事件只是個案,純屬偶然,與工作壓力無關。”而在網上自稱華為老員工寫道:“外包制度讓我們的心更累了。”復旦大學教授顧曉鳴對此表示:“通過華為 事件,類似的企業都應該反思一下自己的企業文化,到底要朝哪個方向發展?”





  據網上一位不願意透露姓名的華為老員工介紹,從2006年後,華為對人力資源的管理實行了人事外包管理模式。華為用新人,先與人力資源外包公 司簽訂合約,由人力資源公司按照華為的需求,提供相關的勞動力,稱為勞務派遣。員工們是被人力資源公司派到華為工作,華為將報酬支付給該人力資源公司,公 司再支付給受聘員工。勞動力的人事管理由人力資源公司承擔,員工與華為不發生直接的人力資源管理關係。

  華為的這種做法降低了在人力資源管理上的成本,規避了用人的法律風險。但員工也成了最徹底的打工者,華為與他們的關係並不大。而對於員工來 說,就可能面臨一系列的問題,如隨時可能失去工作或者遭遇歇工。如果用人公司需求不旺,人力資源公司則會啟動歇工制度,這些打工者就不用工作了,只能領到 最低的生活保障,所以面臨的壓力非常大。

  網上另外一位自稱華為研發部的員工表示,華為把員工的加班算作績效考核的一部分,整個公司的文化就是鼓勵加班。要想獲得好的績效考評,就要不 斷加班,這也成了部分員工長期超負荷加班的動力。而另外一位華為的海外工程師則表示,從市場人員簽第一筆單子起,如果你是該項目組的成員,註定要為其精疲 力竭,“鞠躬盡瘁”。華為只有靠有價格優勢和較短的工程週期,才能與國際巨頭搶市場。

  在華為還有一種獨特的“床墊文化”,成為了華為精神的一個象徵。剛進華為的員工,要與同事一樣睡辦公室,1天工作十幾個小時,曾有過老員工上 班自帶床墊的故事。在現在就業形勢非常嚴峻的情形下,剛畢業的大學生能找到一份工作已很不易,更別說能進華為這樣的公司了。所以,即便華為內部的競爭很激 烈,工作壓力很大,他們也選擇了留下。


  死亡事件發生後,在網上各知名論壇以及很多IT行業論壇上都出現了關於華為員工跳樓的討論帖,在眾多討論中,質疑華為企業文化的聲音最為“響亮”。很 多人都認為企業不能一味地為了達到某種目標或者目的,一味強調企業的狼性文化,而不顧員工的死活。出現這麼多死人事件,可以說是華為忽略了人性企業文化的 建設與培養。

  華為掌門人任正非憑藉著所謂“狼文化”在深圳這個夢幻城市成就了今天世界矚目的華為。退役軍人任正非模倣軍隊思維管理企業,獲得了極大的成 功,但或許這也將華為引向了歧途。這種管理模式造成華為人需要忍受高強度的工作壓力,進行週期短、工作量大的艱苦開拓。現在的華為已經走上了海外擴張之 路,但今天的華為要想成就自己美好的未來光靠這種強硬的管理手段是遠遠不夠的。





2008年3月12日 星期三

Skulltrail, TSMC to Expand R&D Capacity in Taiwan

2008年02月19日13:28 WSJ

特爾(Intel Corp.)以芯片著稱。但這家公司也生產銷售主板﹐目前一款新主板已經開始吸引這個行業中異常關注性能玩家的目光。

這款代號為Skulltrail的新主板帶有兩個CPU插槽﹐可連接兩個英特爾四核CPU。除了擁有相當於8個中央處理芯片之外﹐這也是首個能夠安裝多個來自Nvidia Corp.或高級微設備公司(Advanced Micro Devices Inc.)顯卡的主板。它有四個插槽可以安裝這類顯卡。


Falcon Northwest的總裁凱爾特•瑞夫斯(Kelt Reeves)說﹐這是我們所見到的最偉大的事情。這家公司以生產性能卓越的電腦而聞名﹐受到追求性能玩家的青睞。

預計英特爾將在本週的舊金山遊戲開發人員會議(Game Developers Conference)上討論Skulltrail。但採用這類主板的電腦一開始可能會大量用於圖片和視頻處理等工作中。對這些工作而言﹐時間就是金錢﹐因此軟件公司一直是最先調整其軟件產品﹐以充分利用多處理器的企業之一。

Boxx Technologies Inc.正在開發基於Skulltrail的電腦系統﹐以讓導演能立即回放用最高分辨率的數碼攝像機拍攝的圖像。這種攝像機通常因數據量過大﹐而難以用接近影片最終圖像的質量水平進行快速回放。Boxx主要生產用於製作電影視覺效果的工作站。

Boxx的營銷主管弗蘭索斯•伍爾夫(Francois Wolf)說﹐總有一天你幾乎可以同步看到所進行的工作﹐而這個主板的誕生就是邁向這一時刻的第一步。這的確是一件大事。

目前基於四核處理器的電腦遊戲還不是很多。但市場研究機構Insight 64的分析師內森•布魯克伍德(Nathan Brookwood)預計﹐2008年年底前就會湧現大量此類遊戲

Skulltrail的正式名稱為Dual Socket Extreme Desktop Platform。這款主板也表明英特爾不時會與競爭對手AMD進行合作。儘管AMD正在加緊完善四核芯片以與英特爾進行競爭﹐但是Skulltrail如果能幫助提振其旗下ATI顯卡的需求﹐AMD也會從中受益。AMD於2006年收購了ATI Technologies﹐獲得ATI顯卡業務。

英特爾的發言人丹•施耐德(Dan Snyder)在談到AMD顯卡子公司時表示﹐我們同它們的合作很密切。我們彼此間既存在競爭﹐也在進行合作。

Don Clark

TSMC to Expand R&D Capacity in Taiwan

Contract chip maker TSMC is spending $5 billion to turn one of its manufacturing plants into an R&D center.

PC World
Wednesday, March 12, 2008; 4:19 AM

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., the world's largest contract chip maker, will spend US$5 billion to expand a manufacturing plant in Hsinchu, Taiwan, using the new production lines as a research and development center, a company spokesman said Tuesday.

"When complete, this will be our main R&D center for the next six years," said J.H. Tzeng, a TSMC spokesman.

The company will use the expanded Fab 12 plant in Hsinchu, Taiwan, to research and develop 32-nanometer, 22-nm and 15-nm process technologies, and to provide additional manufacturing capacity, Tzeng said.

Last year TSMC began producing chips using its most advanced manufacturing technology yet, in which the smallest features on the chips measure just 45 nm on average. Smaller is generally better, allowing chip makers to shrink the size of a chip and reduce unit production costs, for example. More advanced process technology can also speed the performance of chips, or allow chip makers to add new features, such as more memory capacity.

Tzeng did not say when TSMC expects to put the 32-nm process technology into volume production, but TSMC is on pace to introduce a new process technology every other year, he said. With the 45-nm process entering production last year, the company should be using the 32-nm process in 2009. The 22-nm process would then enter production in 2011, to be followed by the 15-nm process in 2013.

When fully operational, the new production lines in phases four and five of Fab 12 will employ up to 3,000 workers, Tzeng said.

Tzeng declined to say what the monthly production capacity of the new production lines will be, saying the main focus of the facility will be R&D. At the end of 2007, Fab 12 had a quarterly production capacity of 212,000 wafers 300 mm in diameter, while Fab 14 had a capacity of 176,000 wafers.

Once new process technologies have entered production at Fab 12, they will then be brought online at the company's other 300-millimeter wafer plant, Fab 14 in Tainan, Taiwan, he said.

Editor's Note: This article was updated on March 11 to clarify the capacity of the manufacturing plants, and to make it clear that the new lines will be used as an R&D facility.

2008年3月11日 星期二

Another Meeting? 會議多時自我表現機會多




約 翰•麥凱(John McKay)是名機械工程師﹐他曾在一家消費品公司工作了15年。公司大小會議無數﹐以致於他自己最後都變成會議專家了。他把會議分為9類﹐還撰文 1,820字進行了總結。他說﹐會議五花八門﹐有些屬於重要會議﹐但這類只有“極少數”﹔有些則屬於“旅行愛好者”型﹐那些人不願意召開電話會議﹐只是因 為他們惦記著旅行計劃。







北卡羅來納大學工業組織心理學教授史蒂文•羅格伯格(Steven Rogelberg)和同事進行了一項研究﹐讓一組被調查者對最近開的會議給出評級﹐有69%的被調查者給的評級至少是“好”﹐只有16%的人給了“糟” 或更差的評級。雖然有50%的人對開會怨聲載道﹐但其中有超過60%的人承認他們要麼“並不是那麼在意開會”﹐要麼“享受開會”。



像 服裝公司創辦人諾姆•齊威爾(Norm Zwail)這樣公開承認喜歡開會是需要勇氣的﹐儘管這仍讓人感覺動機不純。他說﹐他喜歡大家目光相觸、放聲大笑時產生的能量﹐以及觀點(特別是自己的觀 點)被大家接受時感受到的“電流”﹔而且﹐他喜歡說話﹐喜歡受到大家的注目﹐喜歡別人聆聽自己的看法。

僅僅是談論會議﹐即使是抱怨開會﹐都顯示出你覺得開會是有意義的。科羅拉多大學傳媒教授凱倫•特雷西(Karen Tracy)說﹐這是顯示自己重要性的另外一種方式。


保險經紀喬•亞當斯(Joe Adams)記不住會議的主題﹐但他卻記得和他聊天的人。他從前在人力資源部工作﹐每天的事情就是開會。他說﹐他很早以前就已經認識到開會是無法使自己成就輝煌的。但他也學會愛上開會這種“可以開小差”的時機來幹“私活”。

芝加哥大學商學院的行為科學助理教授尼古拉斯•埃普利(Nicholas Epley)說﹐人們有非常強的社交需求。在工位上坐著令人麻木、與世隔絕﹐只會讓人更加渴望社交。

研究分析師大衛•馬澤爾(David Mazel)認為﹐人們喜歡開會﹐因為這樣能保持忙碌狀態﹐而不需要完成具體的任務﹐去開會本身就是你的工作。



湯姆•蘭蒂斯(Tom Landis)說﹐開會實際上比工作要好﹐可能是因為他本人就是為會議提供送餐服務的餐館老板。他指出﹐雖然人們討厭開會﹐但更討厭工作﹐所以人們選擇了開會。

某製造企業的首席執行長史蒂夫•克瑞朋(Steve Crippen)說﹐他能判斷客戶什麼時候要開會﹐因為他會收到十幾個人打來問詢電話﹐提的問題都一模一樣。他們都希望能在下次會議上有機會說﹕“我和他們談過了﹐這事我已經搞定了”。

Jared Sandberg

Another Meeting? Another Chance To Hear Myself Talk

Ask anyone what they like about meetings and they'll tell you instead why they hate them.

For 15 years, John McKay, a mechanical engineer, worked at a consumer-products company where they held so many meetings he ended up an expert, categorizing them under nine labels, summed up in a 1,820-word document. They ranged from critical meetings, which are 'the vast minority,' he says, to travel-inspired ones, for people who 'don't like video conferencing because it would spoil their travel plans.'

'It became drudgery,' says Mr. McKay.

But then he joined a new company where there were almost no meetings. 'I began to miss all those meetings,' he admits. 'When you come out of it cold turkey, you realize you had a lot of human contact.' Nowadays, he would look forward to a three-hour meeting, he says. He even tries to involve himself in projects that will bring 'more of that contact.'

Mr. McKay's confession helps answer the question of why, if everybody hates meetings so much, do we have so many of them?

Early manuals on meetings warned against late arrivals, early departures, falling asleep -- and spitting. (Hence, the notion of spewing.)

Today, with at least the latter offense vanquished we can focus on the fact that we are, by nature, needy huddlers and cuddlers. The same person who disparages meetings -- an exercise as easy as shooting fish in a barrel -- sometimes secretly thinks they can be productive, can be a totem of status or, at the very least, can be a great forum for their latest joke material. They can also change the day's tempo -- if only by introducing cinnamon buns.

Surprisingly, a study to be released later this year shows a great number of meeting moaners are total fakers.

Steven Rogelberg, a professor of industrial organizational psychology at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, and a group of colleagues found that among people surveyed about their last meeting, 69% rated them at least 'good,' while only 16% rated them 'poor' or worse. And although 50% said they complained about meetings, more than 60% of these complainers admitted that they either 'don't mind them that much' or 'enjoy them.'

Asked what their ideal work day would look like, two-thirds of respondents said it would include at least one or more meetings.

The disparity between public distaste toward meetings and private affection is likely due to the stigma attached to admitting you like them. It's declaring yourself either a show-off or a sheep -- and definitely a time-waster. 'If you say that you dislike meetings, you're able to latch on to this rugged individualism,' Prof. Rogelberg says.

It takes a brave soul like Norm Zwail, founder of an apparel business, to profess his meeting affection, although it still gives the impression that someone spiked the Poland Spring. 'I feed off the energy produced when eyes meet and laughter is heard, and the electricity generated when an idea is universally accepted, especially when it is my idea,' he says. 'Plus, I love to talk, be seen and be heard.'

Just talking about a meeting -- even if it's a gripe -- signals you rated an invitation in the first place. It's 'another way to show how important you are,' says Karen Tracy, a professor of communication at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Prof. Tracy has studied pre-meetings, which she says are crucial to the organization and the individual. After all, the time before the official business begins often is more interesting than the agenda, and the friendly chatter reminds you why you like someone.

Joe Adams, an insurance agent, can't recall meeting topics. 'But I do remember the people I talked to,' he says. Formerly in an HR department where all he did was meet, 'I learned long ago that I am not going to meet myself to greatness.' But he has also learned to love the 'productive downtime' of meetings to make his own to-do lists.

'The drive for social connection is a very strong one,' says Nicholas Epley, an assistant professor of behavioral science at the University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business. Sitting in a cubicle is 'stupefying' and isolating, only intensifying a social need.

David Mazel, a research analyst, thinks people like meetings because 'you can stay busy without accomplishing a thing.' He says 'having gone to the meeting is the work.'

At one meeting he attended on ballistic-missile defense, the colonel conducting the meeting began by announcing the date of the next gathering and its refreshments. No marching orders emerged.

'The idea that we might actually do something for the nation was not a concern,' Mr. Mazel says.

Meetings actually are better than work, adds Tom Landis, probably because he is president of a restaurant company that caters meetings. 'Meetings are held because, while people detest them, they hate actually working more,' he notes.

Steve Crippen, who heads a manufacturing company, can tell whenever there has been a meeting at one of his customers' companies because he'll receive as many as a dozen calls from its attendees asking for the same information. 'They're looking for an opportunity to go to the next meeting and say, 'Well, I talked to them, and I got this done.''

2008年3月9日 星期日

"Let's make things better" to "Sense and Simplicity"

荷蘭皇家飛利浦電子公司EuronextPHIA, NYSEPHG,荷蘭語:Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.,英語Royal Dutch Philips Electronics Ltd.),簡稱飛利浦公司,是世界上最大的電子公司之一。

In 2004, Philips abandoned the slogan "Let's make things better" in favour of a new one: "Sense and Simplicity". 中國翻譯: 精于心 简于形





ロイヤル フィリップス エレクトロニクスは、ヘルスケア、ライフスタイル、テクノロジーの分野において、“sense and simplicity”というブランドプロミスと共に、製品とサービスとソリューションを提供するグローバル・リーディングカンパニーです。



New Yorkers trying recycling“e-waste”

Engineering a Tough Switch: Getting New Yorkers to Recycle Electronics

Marc Steiner for The New York Times

At Supreme Asset Management and Recovery in Lakewood, N.J., workers confronted a pile of old computers for recycling.

Published: March 10, 2008

boom box

They are often wedged in closets, collecting dust. Some inevitably end up between banana peels and apple cores in a landfill. In New York City, finding an appropriate final resting place for aging computers, boom boxes and televisions can be an arduous task.

Skip to next paragraph
Marc Steiner for The New York Times

One nonprofit group in New York spent $40,000 last year on recycling electronics.

An even more daunting obstacle might be educating their owners.

As the fate of a City Council bill requiring electronic waste recycling rests on the tip of Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg’s pen, many New Yorkers have no idea where and how to dispose of unwanted electronic items, many of which contain environmental hazards like lead and mercury.

Sabrina Brown, for example, has never heard of “e-waste” recycling.

Ms. Brown, 20, a student from Richmond Hill, Queens, said she had three cellphones, an old laptop computer, an old television, two old radios and three old cameras sitting in her room.

“I don’t know where to take them,” she said.

Mr. Bloomberg has expressed strong opposition to a bill passed by the City Council last month that would fine New Yorkers $100 for throwing electronics in the garbage and would require manufacturers to take back their products and those made by companies that are no longer in business.

Mr. Bloomberg, who says the bill penalizes manufacturers for the behavior of consumers, is expected to veto the measure this week, but the bill may have enough support in Council to pass in an override or a compromise. Whatever the bill’s form, New Yorkers already have several opportunities to recycle their electronics, including collection events sponsored by the city’s Sanitation Department twice a year.

The Lower East Side Ecology Center, a nonprofit environmental group, holds monthly electronic waste drop-off events. The center also works with Build It Green! NYC, a nonprofit retail outlet for salvaged and surplus building materials, which accepts unwanted electronics at its warehouse in Astoria, Queens, Tuesdays through Saturdays.

Per Scholas is a Bronx-based organization that accepts old electronics and refurbishes computers to distribute in low-income communities and to schools. Some retailers, including Staples, accept old electronics at their stores for recycling.

Last year, the Lower East Side Ecology Center collected 118 tons of discarded electronics, more than in any previous year, though the center also held twice as many collection events as it had in the past.

The Sanitation Department, which began its electronics drop-off events in 2004, saw a steady increase in its collection through the first three years. But the number of tons collected dipped to 295 in 2007 from 309 in 2006, though the number of people who provided something for recycling increased.

“Fundamentally, people seem to think there’s something criminal about throwing away a computer” because they paid so much for it, said Robert Lange, the Sanitation Department’s director of waste prevention, reuse and recycling.

Some people who don’t recycle find other ways to keep their electronics out of the waste stream. “I pass it on to my family, sisters and brothers,” said Nick Sky, 36, who lives on the Upper East Side.

To keep up with the latest technology for work, Clint Hild, 28, a digital imaging specialist who lives in Hell’s Kitchen in Manhattan, replaces his computer every year. He turns to eBay to dispose of his old ones.

Mr. Hild might be the rare person who has an extensive knowledge of electronics recycling. He used to work as a technician in a computer lab at Wells College in upstate New York. When the lab was ready to update its equipment, he helped find a center where the old computers could be recycled.

As a child, Mr. Hild said, he went “Dumpster diving,” collecting old electronics from the garbage and restoring them.

“I don’t throw them away because even hardware from five, 10 years ago still has a use,” he said.

According to a Sanitation Department study of waste disposed in 2004 and 2005, discarded electronics made up 0.64 percent of the city’s trash.

But even a small amount of such waste can produce contamination, said Kate Sinding, a senior attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Ms. Sinding cited a recent report by the Environmental Protection Agency that said electronics might account for 40 percent of the lead found in landfills nationwide.

“The tons may be small, but it carries a disproportionate impact in terms of its environmental and health risks,” she said.

Ms. Sinding said she expected an “e-waste tsunami” next year when most television stations stop broadcasting analog signals over the air, and older TV sets without digital tuners become obsolete. Christine Datz-Romero, a co-founder of the Lower East Side Ecology Center, said organizations in the city needed to better publicize electronics recycling and make it more accessible.

“If you have an old clunky monitor sitting in your house, a lot of New Yorkers don’t have transportation,” she said. “It’s really a burden for New Yorkers to schlep something uptown or downtown.”

Recycling electronics can also be pricey, costing $300 to $400 per ton. Ms. Datz-Romero said her organization spent $40,000 last year on electronic waste recycling. The center does not charge people for dropping off electronics and relies on fund-raising. At Staples, customers must pay $10 for each electronic item they drop off.

The center sends its electronics to Supreme Asset Management and Recovery, in Lakewood, N.J. There, the items are separated into two categories: those that can be refurbished and resold and those that are turned into scraps and recycled.

Ms. Datz-Romero and other supporters of the City Council recycling bill said they hoped it would force manufacturers to make it easier for consumers to recycle their electronics by offering incentives like mail-back programs. The bill would not provide curbside electronics recycling, which could be an impediment, some recycling advocates said.

Carey Pulverman, the project manager for the Lower East Side Ecology Center, spends much of her day on the phone with people looking for ways to get rid of old electronics.

“The thing is, people don’t want to go out of their way to do it,” she said. “Mostly, it’s them trying to talk to me about why they need their stuff picked up.”



By Tom Mitchell in Dongguan Monday, March 10, 2008
Workers at Nike's contract factories in China do not enjoy the same protection as their peers elsewhere because of “gaps” in the country's labour laws, the global footwear giant has said in a report.

“We commend the important steps taken by the Chinese government to increase protection of workers' rights,” Nike said in an inaugural report on its corporate social responsibility initiatives in China, where it works with 180 factories employing 210,000 workers.

“However, when comparing Chinese law with the basic protections outlined under the [International Labour Organisation] Convention, there are gaps in protection that workers elsewhere enjoy.”

The report is part of a larger effort by Nike to increase the transparency of its operations in China – where the company sources 35 per cent of its footwear – before this summer's Olympic games in Beijing.

Nike also implied that China's existing labour protection regime, although boosted by this year's implementation of a new labour contract law, falls short of standards set by the ILO.

“We encourage all governments to recognise and respect the principles embodied in ILO Conventions 87 and 98 regarding freedom of association and collective bargaining,” the report said, without citing China specifically.

Nike was an early supporter of China's labour contract law, which enhances collective bargaining rights. “We endorsed it because we thought it was a good thing,” said Hannah Jones, Nike's vice-president for corporate responsibility.

China's only government-approved union, the All China Federation of Trade Unions, is represented in about half of Nike's factories across the country. Activists hope the new labour contract law could lead to the establishment of more independent unions at companies where the official union is not represented

英国《金融时报》汤姆•米切尔(Tom Mitchell)东莞报道 2008年3月10日 星期一 全球鞋业巨擘耐克(Nike)在一份报告中表示,由于中国劳动法中的“差距”,耐克在华代工工厂员工无法享受与其它国家员工同等的保护。
耐克在其首份关于在华企业社会责任行动的报告中表示:“我们对于中国政府加大员工权利保护的重要措施表示赞赏。”耐克在中国有180家合作工厂,这些工厂聘有21万名员工。“然而,如果把中国劳动法与《国际劳工组织公约》(International Labour Organisation Convention)规定员工基本保护相比,中国员工所享受的保护仍与其它国家员工存在差距。”


报告称:“我们鼓励所有国家的政府,承认并尊重国际劳工组织第87号和第98号公约所包含的关于结社自由和集体谈判的原则。”报告没有特别列出中国。耐克是《中国劳动合同法》(labour contract law)早期的支持者,这部法律提高了雇员的集体谈判权。耐克负责社会责任事务的副总裁汉纳•琼斯(Hannah Jones)表示:“我们之所以支持这部法律,是因为我们认为这是一件好事。”

中国唯一得到政府批准的工会——中华全国总工会(All China Federation of Trade Unions)在耐克约半数在华代工工厂中设有代表。维权人士希望新的劳动合同法,能够有助于在那些中华全国总工会没有设立代表的企业,建立更多独立工会组织。译者/梁艳裳

2008年3月5日 星期三

Intel Plans for Ultra-Small Chips

這篇翻譯在兩處category 的翻譯不一致

此文的 devices 不是設備 (computing/ MIDs)等]

"a fixture of advertising and marketing materials since the early 1990s." 翻譯為"在上世紀90年代初啟動名為“Intel Inside”的營銷攻勢"
建議:advertising fixture 廣告賽和營銷題材
(fixture━━ n. (普通pl.) 定着物, 備品, 設備; (役職などに)居すわりの人; 競技(の開催日); 恒例競技会[行事].)

'We are looking at each platform on its own merits,' said Bill Calder, an Intel spokesman. 'In this case, flexibility is important.'英特爾發言人比爾•考爾德(Bill Calder)表示﹐公司在研究每種平台各自的優點。在這個問題上﹐重要的是靈活性。
look at 不是"研究"
on one's own merit 真価によって; 実力で.
case 不是"問題"



特爾(Intel Corp.)正在為其即將問世的超級微型芯片進行品牌造勢﹐期望能推動市場對兩類新興電腦設備的需求。


英特爾還打算以“Centrino Atom”為品牌推出開發MID設備的技術“平台”﹐包括一顆Silverthorne芯片和一顆英特爾的圖像處理芯片。它可以說是英特爾2003年面向筆記本電腦所推“迅馳”(Centrino)品牌的延伸。

英特爾的此番品牌推廣活動受到了非同尋常的關注。一定程度上是因為﹐這意味著英特爾將拿出大筆資金吸引硬件廠商在產品上加貼其標識並滿足其他要求。自從英特爾在上世紀90年代初啟動名為“Intel Inside”的營銷攻勢以來﹐該公司一直堅持這種做法。



而要想加貼“Centrino Atom”品牌標識﹐硬件廠商生產的移動設備必須符合英特爾定下的產品規格。例如產品的對角線長度不得超過7.5英寸﹐而且必須能無線上網。但這項功能並不一定要採用英特爾的芯片才能實現。例如生產商可以採用其他廠商提供的蜂窩式數據網技術。

英特爾發言人比爾•考爾德(Bill Calder)表示﹐公司在研究每種平台各自的優點。在這個問題上﹐重要的是靈活性。




Intel Plans for Ultra-Small Chips


Intel Corp. is launching a branding campaign for a forthcoming family of ultra-small chips, hoping to drive demand for two emerging categories of computing devices.

The company will use the name Atom in marketing a new microprocessor line that has two variants. One chip, previously known by the code name Silverthorne, is designed to be the calculating engine for pocket-sized gadgets that Intel calls MIDs, for mobile Internet devices. The other chip to carry the Atom brand, code-named Diamondville, is designed for low-end laptop and desktop computers expected to cost around $250.

Intel, of Santa Clara, Calif., also plans to introduce the brand Centrino Atom for a 'platform' of technologies for mobile Internet devices, including a Silverthorne chip and a companion Intel chip that includes graphics functions. The phrase extends the Centrino brand that Intel introduced in 2003 for technology used in laptop computers.

Intel's branding moves attract unusual attention, partly because they typically come along with lucrative marketing funds for hardware companies that agree to use its logos and meet other requirements. The concept started with the chip maker's Intel Inside campaign, a fixture of advertising and marketing materials since the early 1990s.

The branding efforts also have been a formidable competitive weapon. Intel's dominant position in the microprocessor market helps it fund marketing inducements that are difficult for rivals to match.

Some of the efforts are designed to help Intel build its position in new markets. Laptop computer makers that want to use the Centrino brand, for example, have to use Intel chips for wireless networking as well as its microprocessors.

To use the new Centrino Atom brand, hardware makers have to meet Intel specifications for mobile devices. The products can measure no more than 7.5 inches diagonally and must offer wireless networking. But that function does not have to be delivered using an Intel chip; device makers, for example, could include cellular data-networking technologies that are offered by other suppliers.

'We are looking at each platform on its own merits,' said Bill Calder, an Intel spokesman. 'In this case, flexibility is important.'

The Silverthorne and Diamondville chips are so small that 11 of them would fit in a space the size of a penny. They represent the first time Intel has used its most advanced microprocessor manufacturing process to shrink the size of a new chip, rather than packing more features into a more-advanced chip that commands a higher price. They are expected to be formally introduced in the second quarter, with hardware based on them available later in the year.

Not all of Intel's branding efforts have paid off. The company, for example, in 2006 announced a plan to use the term Viiv for a new category of entertainment devices and Internet video programming. But Intel in December said it will drop that plan, stating it would use a modified version of the brand only on entertainment-oriented personal computers.


2008年3月3日 星期一

Joseph M. Juran 死去(斷續之追念之二)

Joseph M. Juran 死去(斷續之追念之二)

今天的 Joseph Juran, 103, Pioneer in Quality Control, Dies 紐約時報 比較AP的稍微精彩。不過文末引Peter Drucker ,他總是會說些好聽的話。最有趣的是說,Juran生前還在更新他的某本舊著。

Joseph M. Juran曾陸續建構幾張「示意圖」,作為他論點的輔助說明。這一”事業”的「表與裏」以及其「含意」,是相當值得我們討論的。

1981611日,他在「歐洲品質組織 25屆年會」發表的主題演說:『為西方的產品品質把脈、開方』(N. Sasaki D. Hutchins《日本式的品質管理應用在歐美廠商的個案》鍾漢清編譯,台北:新世界出版社,1985,頁161-180),舉出「西方 vs 日本」的品質績效,基本上是大而化之的說法。

年之後,「我在演講開頭,必須先掃除一則關於美國流行的盲目排日之迷信、胡說八道。 ……」("Let me clear up for good one bit of chauvinist nonsense."),參考Made in U. S. A. : A Renaissance in Quality ,Harvard Business Review, July-August, 1993, pp. 42-8,就說得比較具體些:採用Rates of auto quality improvement”

關於 quality trilogy 「示意圖」之發展故事,我改天再詳說。

他這輩子最成功的是開創「撰述」持續改善的機制,譬如說 quality handbook各版約11年更新一次,其間顧問公司和教科書再更新,所以他可以有進步之機會。記得嗎「他們養成一專案接一專案(project by project)的改善習慣」。

我幾天前讀他編的quality handbook quality planning process 一章,注意到其中引Ford公司開發M車系的績效十來要項(類,panels),我們可以比較該書Toyota公司的作法。這是很值得深思的。

印象最深的是當時讀到一則日本名汽車供應商集團的quality circle之故事報導,我特別注意他們在安全方面的發明以及「將物品邊轉動邊檢查,將無用的去除,是非常具有參考價值的事例。

品質管理の改善例発表 苫小牧のQCサークル(03/01 14:05



 過酸化水素を取り扱う新酸素化学は、出荷に使うポリ容器の回収後の処理をコンベヤーを利用して簡素化し、作業時間を三分の一、人員を半分で済むようにし た事例を発表。同支部幹事のトヨタ自動車北海道品質管理部の渡辺裕文担当課長は「モノを動かしながらチェックするなど無駄を取り除いており、非常に参考に なる事例」と講評。 また、西川組は配電盤など高圧設備に近い場所での作業安全性を高めるため、光や音で危険を知らせるセンサー付きバリケードの発明事例を紹介した。(広田孝明)

2008年3月2日 星期日

the love and compassion and commitment (Starbucks)

スタバ、全米で営業休止 品質改善へ3時間半訓練

2008年2月28日 朝刊





Starbucks Takes a 3-Hour Coffee Break

Jacob Silberberg for The New York Times

A training session on Tuesday at a Starbucks on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, which focused on making the drinks.

Published: February 27, 2008

At Starbucks stores across the country on Tuesday night, it was time for the corporate version of re-education camp.

Skip to next paragraph
Jacob Silberberg for The New York Times

On the Upper East Side of Manhattan, Mario Munoz told potential customers that Starbucks was closed for training.

In its campaign to revive the intimate, friendly feel of a neighborhood coffee shop, Starbucks orchestrated the closing of 7,100 of its American stores at precisely 5:30 p.m. for a three-hour retraining session for employees.

It was an exacting enterprise. At a store on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, the drink-making employees, known as baristas, were told to dispense espresso into shot glasses instead of cups. They were urged to check the color of each shot. They were urged to pay more attention to the particularities of steaming milk.

A handout labeled “Espresso Excellence” informed them that “without aeration, the milk screams and lacks sweetness.” And: “The perfect milk requires surfing the tip of the steam wand until the sound is SSHHHH.”


━━ vt. 空気に当てる[を入れる]; 炭酸ガス(など)を入れる; 酸素を供給する.
aerated bread 無酵母パン.
aerated water 〔英〕 炭酸水.
aer・a・tion ━━ n. 通気; 炭酸ガスを入れること.
aer・a・tor ━━ n. 通風装置(など).

Lest anyone doubt that Starbucks is serious, employees were reminded that the chain intended to get rid of odoriferous breakfast sandwiches, just so customers can smell the coffee again.

Howard D. Schultz, the company’s recently reappointed chief executive, has spoken of regaining the “soul of the past” and improving the experience of Starbucks customers. Tuesday night’s sessions were the latest indication of his focus on that task. Indeed, the sessions took place at a time when Starbucks is pining for better days.

The company is closing 100 American stores because of sluggish sales, and expansion plans have been scaled back. Starbucks, once a magic name on Wall Street, is increasingly seen there as just another big food chain.

Time for a makeover.

“It’s really inspiring to talk about the quality of our espresso when we’re here all in the same room,” Justin A. Chapple, manager of the Starbucks on 85th Street and Lexington Avenue, told his employees as members of the press viewed what was billed as a typical training session. “We want to be aware of how we are presenting our drinks to our customers.”

The group, many of them earnest young employees who seemed dedicated to learning their lessons, watched a videotaped message from Mr. Schultz. The head and shoulders of the barista in chief filled the screen.

“This is not about training,” he said to his employees, looking somewhat somber. “This is about the love and compassion and commitment that we all need to have for the customer.”

The store’s employees — dressed alike in black tops, green aprons and Starbucks caps — watched the screen carefully, some nodding in agreement. Mr. Schultz reiterated points from a well-publicized memorandum he wrote in February 2007. In it, Mr. Schultz bemoaned the “watering down” of the Starbucks experience, blaming the expediencies of rapid growth for removing “much of the romance and theater” from the ubiquitous stores.

At the time, Mr. Schultz lamented, “We achieved fresh-roasted bagged coffee, but at what cost?” (To be precise, a one-pound bag of Starbucks Caffe Verona beans sells for $9.95.)

Then employees broke into groups to discuss new techniques to improve the taste and texture of drinks. Would-be customers were turned away at the door. In Manhattan, at least, a few were left in the rain.

In his memo, Mr. Schultz mentioned the automated machines that grind coffee beans and spit out espresso with little human intervention. Those machines, regularly assailed by espresso fanatics, are a continuing sore point for the chain.

“The machine is really a tool,” Ann-Marie Kurtz, the company’s manager for global coffee and tea education, said in an interview. “Ultimately, the barista is still the artist.”

She said that baristas still control the quality of the espresso shot by adjusting the grind and also aerating the milk just so to make it appropriate for lattes and cappuccinos.

Ms. Kurtz said Tuesday night’s training was “not retraining as much as refining skills,” and she likened it to the staff of her favorite Italian restaurant returning to Italy every year to immerse themselves in authentic food.

On busy Lexington Avenue, a barista offered free drinks to the customers who had been refused entrance. Told of the company’s plans for rejuvenating its brand, one Manhattan resident said he was unimpressed.

“Honestly, I just want the coffee fast,” said Cameron Kemal, 16, a student at nearby Regis High School. “The stigma of a big chain doesn’t go away by making coffee slower.”

But a friend of his said the brewing techniques could make a difference. “When you see them pull a carton of something out of the refrigerator, it reminds me I’m paying $5 for a squirt of liquid and milk,” said Hannah Boyd, 16, who lives on the Upper East Side.

She helped herself to three free samples.

Andrew Martin contributed reporting.