2010年12月31日 星期五

For Sushi Chain, Conveyor Belts Carry Profit

Hiroko Tabuchi for The New York Times

Kura, a chain in Japan, relies on small staffs and lots of automation, like sushi-making robots.

SAYAMA, Japan — The Kura “revolving sushi” restaurant chain has no Michelin stars, but it has succeeded where many of Japan’s more celebrated eateries fall short: turning a profit in a punishing economy.

Hiroko Tabuchi for The New York Times

Kura puts codes on the bottom of its plates to keep track of how long a sushi portion has been circulating on a conveyor belt.

Efficiency is paramount at Kura: absent are the traditional sushi chefs and their painstaking attention to detail. In their place are sushi-making robots and an emphasis on efficiency.

Absent, too, are flocks of waiters. They have been largely replaced by conveyors belts that carry sushi to diners and remote managers who monitor Kura’s 262 restaurants from three control centers across Japan. (“We see gaps of over a meter between your sushi plates — please fix,” a manager said recently by telephone to a Kura restaurant 10 miles away.)

Absent, too, are the exorbitant prices of conventional sushi restaurants. At a Kura, a sushi plate goes for 100 yen, or about $1.22.

Such measures are helping Kura stay afloat even though the country’s once-profligate diners have tightened their belts in response to two decades of little economic growth and stagnant wages.

Many other restaurants and dining businesses in Japan have not fared so well. After peaking at 29.7 trillion yen in 1997, the country’s restaurant sector has shrunk almost every year as a weak economy has driven businesses into price wars — or worse, sent them belly-up. In 2009, restaurant revenue, including from fast-food stores, fell 2.3 percent, to 23.9 trillion yen —20 percent below the peak, according to the Foodservice Industry Research Institute, a research firm in Tokyo.

Bankruptcies have been rampant: in 2009, 674 dining businesses with liabilities of over 10 million yen went under, the highest number in the last five years, according to Teikoku Data Bank, a credit research company.

In November 2009, Soho’s Hospitality, the company behind celebrity restaurants like Nobu and Roy’s, filed for bankruptcy. Roy’s is now run by another company, while Nobu’s chef, Nobu Matsuhisa, has opened a new restaurant elsewhere in Tokyo with Robert De Niro.

Along with other low-cost restaurant chains, Kura has bucked the dining-out slump with low prices and a dogged pursuit of efficiency. In the company’s most recent fiscal year, which ended on Oct. 31, net profit jumped 20 percent from the same period a year earlier, to 2.8 billion yen.

In the last two months alone, Kura has added seven stores.

“If you look at the restaurant business, consumers are still holding back because of employment fears and falling incomes, and there’s no signs that will change,” said Kunihiko Tanaka, Kura’s chief executive, who opened Kura’s first sushi restaurant in 1995. “Amid these worsening conditions, our company feels that consumer sentiment matches, or is even a tail wind” to the Kura business, he told shareholders earlier this year.

The travails of Japan’s restaurant industry, and the changes in Japanese dining habits, may be among most visible manifestations of how Japan’s “bubble economy” excesses in the 1980s have given way to frugal times since the bubble burst in 1990.

With wages weak — average annual private sector pay has fallen 12 percent in the last decade, to 4.05 million yen, or about $49,300, in 2009 — the Japanese now spend less on eating out. An average single-person household spent 163,000 yen on dining in 2009, 27 percent less than in 2000, according to detailed budget surveys compiled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

In a survey by Citizen Holdings, the watchmaker, of 400 men in their 20s to 50s, the average time spent at cafes and restaurants plunged from 7 hours and 52 minutes a week in 1990 to 2 hours and 25 minutes in 2010.

An aging population is also depressing restaurant sales. More than one-fifth of Japan’s population is already over 65, and surveys indicate that older people tend to eat out less. The population is also shrinking, reducing the restaurants’ potential customer base.

Meanwhile, Japanese companies have cut back sharply on their entertainment expenses, further hurting restaurant sales. Total corporate spending on dining and entertainment has halved from a peak of 9.5 trillion yen in 1991 to 4.8 trillion yen in 2008, according to data from the National Tax Agency.

“The restaurant industry here is so linked to the state of the economy, and that’s why we’re seeing this decline,” said Munenori Hotta, a food service industry expert at Miyagi University in Japan. “In this climate, even top restaurants are having to moderate their prices to keep attracting customers,” he said.

Japan’s dining-out boom had its roots in the 1970s and 1980s, as incomes grew and rural populations flocked to big cities. So-called family restaurants brought cheap, Western-style food to the masses flourished in that era. So did American fast-food chains, which were considered novel at the time. Kentucky Fried Chicken opened its first restaurant here in 1970, followed by McDonald’s in 1971.

At the other end of the price range, a new generation of wealthy Japanese savored imported French wines at lavish restaurants. By 1986, there were 503,088 restaurants across Japan, according to records from the Internal Affairs Ministry. That was nearly double the number from 15 years earlier — and was more restaurants than now operate in the United States, which has more than twice the population of Japan.

After the bubble burst in 1990, new low-cost restaurant chains that offered pizzas for as little as 400 yen, or $4.86, started to spread across Japan, and restaurateurs spoke with alarm of ready-made, convenience-store meals that were siphoning off sales.

In the depths of the slump, in 1995, Mr. Tanaka started a company based on serving quality sushi on the cheap.

His idea of using conveyor belts to offer diners a steady stream of sushi on small plates was not a new one; an Osaka-based entrepreneur invented such a system in the late 1950s. But Mr. Tanaka set out to undercut his rivals with deft automation, an investment in information technology, some creativity and an almost extreme devotion to cost-efficiency. In Japan, where labor costs are high, that meant running his restaurants with as few workers as possible.

Instead of placing supervisors at each restaurant, Kura set up central control centers with video links to the stores. At these centers, a small group of managers watch for everything from wayward tuna slices to outdated posters on restaurant walls.

Each Kura store is also highly automated. Diners use a touch panel to order soup and other side dishes, which are delivered to tables on special express conveyor belts. In the kitchen, a robot busily makes the rice morsels for a server to top with cuts of fish that have been shipped from a central processing plant, where workers are trained to slice tuna and mackerel accurately down to the gram.

Diners are asked to slide finished plates into a tableside bay, where they are automatically counted to calculate the bill, doused in cleaning fluid and flushed back to the kitchen on a stream of water. Matrix codes on the backs of plates keep track of how long a sushi portion has been circulating on conveyor belts; a small robotic arm disposes of any that have been out too long.

Kura spends 10 million yen to fit each new restaurant with the latest automation systems, an investment it says pays off in labor cost savings. In all, just six servers and a minimal kitchen staff can service a restaurant seating 196 people, said a company spokesman, Takeshi Hattori.

“Its not just about efficiency,” Mr. Hattori said. “Diners love it too. For example, women say they like clearing finished plates right away, so others can’t see how much they’ve eaten.”

Traditional sushi chefs have not fared so well, however. While the overall market for belt-conveyor sushi restaurants jumped 42 percent, to 428 billion yen, in 2009 compared with 2003, higher-end sushi restaurants are on the decline, according to Fuji-Keizai, a market research firm.

“It’s such a bargain at 100 yen,” said Toshiyuki Arai, a delivery company worker dining at a Kura restaurant with his sister and her 3-year-old son. “A real sushi restaurant?” he said. “I hardly go anymore.”

中日企業一點: the yuan defeating the yen?

China Squeezes Foreigners for Share of Global Riches
Some of the world's biggest companies, including GE and GM, are taking a risky but potentially rewarding step in China—folding pieces of their world-wide operations into partnerships with Chinese firms to do business around the globe.

China Clamps Down on Skype Chinese regulators are clamping down on Internet phone services that aren't provided by the country's two state-owned telecoms, a move that could make services like Skype unavailable.

Japan Electronics Giants Up Reform Pace

When it comes to restructuring, this is about as energized as Japan's lethargic electronics leviathans can get.

In the past few days, several have taken—or talked about taking—steps to concentrate their operations on core competencies. Some of these moves are small but nevertheless welcome: sprawling businesses and thin margins have made Japan's manufacturers vulnerable to demand shocks and competition from nimbler rivals in South Korea.

Toshiba said it's selling to Sony a factory that makes large-scale integration chips which serve as the brain ...




Share Article このエントリをはてなブックマークに追加 Yahoo!ブックマークに登録 このエントリをdel.icio.usに登録 このエントリをlivedoorクリップに登録 このエントリをBuzzurlに登録

photoThe yen mark stands for the Chinese currency on this signboard advertising yuan-denominated financial products in Hong Kong. (Keiko Yoshioka)

Although the Chinese yuan is criticized as being artificially undervalued, its status and influence have certainly appreciated in terms of trade settlements and overseas projects.

Like the Japanese yen in the early 1970s, the yuan, also called the renminbi, is slowly but surely coming of age.

Although the Chinese currency is unlikely to become a global standard anytime soon, its increased use in trade transactions could undermine the current power of the yen, eating away profits of Japanese financial institutions and affecting investments in Japan, watchers say.

Beijing continues to strictly regulate trading of the yuan. But the rising power is easing other restrictions to transform the yuan into a currency that is convenient for settling transactions by Chinese companies, which are increasingly entering overseas markets.

The Chinese government fears than an overreliance on the U.S. dollar poses a risk, because if the U.S. economy falters, the greenback could plummet and devastate China's foreign currency reserves.

Following the Asian currency crisis in the late 1990s, Beijing kept a tight rein on any attempts to liberalize the yuan, fearing drastic fluctuations in deposits or withdrawals.

But after the collapse of U.S. investment bank Lehman Brothers in autumn 2008, Chinese officials started expressing concerns about the dangers of holding on to dollars.

In July 2009, China lifted a ban on using the yuan for trade settlements between five Chinese cities, including Shanghai, as well as Hong Kong, Macao and the 10 ASEAN countries.

Beijing has since further eased the restrictions.

The volume of transactions settled in yuan still account for only a small fraction of total settlements. But Lian Ping, chief economist at the Bank of Communications, said, "The proportion should reach around 10 percent in three to five years."

Since the summer, the Shanghai currency exchange added the Malaysian ringgit and Russian ruble to the list of currencies with which the yuan can be directly traded. The list already included the U.S. dollar, the yen, the euro, the pound and the Hong Kong dollar.

The increased direct trading of the yuan with a variety of currencies will enable Chinese businesses to avert risks brought about by exchange rate fluctuations and reduce transaction costs.

Beijing is reportedly considering adding the Brazilian real to the list.

China's rising influence on the global stage has also pumped up the yuan's status, as shown by the growth of yuan-denominated loans that Beijing is extending to developing countries.

Projects covered by the yuan loans, namely railroad, dam and highway construction projects, will involve Chinese businesses and the settlement of large numbers of Chinese near the sites. Sprawling economic zones where the yuan is used will be created as hotels and merchants start accepting the Chinese currency.

"The age when the yuan was only used in transactions in border areas (with China) has become a thing of the past," said Hiroshi Mogi, of Mitsubishi Corp. (Hong Kong) Ltd. "As more Chinese businesses go overseas, the areas where the yuan can be used will expand."

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao also declared recently that "China intends to gain a voice in international organizations that is on par with its economic power."

As a contributor to the International Monetary Fund, China rose from sixth to third last fall, and is closing in on second-ranked Japan.

Until now, most key posts at Asian organizations have been reserved for Japanese.

"China does not have the kind of human talent capable of controlling international finance," a senior Japanese Finance Ministry official said.

Beijing obviously disagrees.

A rift has emerged among officials of ASEAN Plus 3 (Japan, China and South Korea) over who should head a Singapore-based economic research office.

Japan has been pushing for the appointment of a well-connected person who is also well versed in economic cooperation in the Asian region. Beijing has insisted on a former senior official from the People's Bank of China, China's central bank, who has also worked at the IMF.

China's push is seen as an attempt to help raise the international profile of the yuan.

But many experts play down Beijing's intentions.

"The renminbi is still subject to many restrictions, and it certainly is not yet in a position to replace the dollar," said Yu Yongding, who teaches at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Yu said the Chinese government simply decided to end its overdependence on the dollar, which is subject to fluctuations stemming from U.S. policy.

Jin Canrong, who teaches at the Renmin University of China, said that rather than strive for a single Asian currency, "it is more realistic to push for the internationalization of the yuan."

Beijing also has ambitions to bolster Shanghai into a global financial market in the same club as New York and London.

"The Chinese government is slowly easing regulations using Hong Kong as a testing ground," said Eiichi Sekine of the Nomura Institute of Capital Markets Research.

Whatever China's intentions, the rising standing of the yuan will have an impact not only on the yen, but also the Japanese economy.

Experts say reduced trading of the yen would deal a major blow to the revenues of financial institutions and dampen investment in Japanese stocks and bonds.

Tokyo aggressively raised the yen's status in international markets in the 1980s and 1990s. After the government completely deregulated capital trading in 1998, the process became complete.

"It was our predecessors' ambitions to see the yen claim the dominant position in the Asian market, just as the dollar dominated the Western Hemisphere," said Hiroshi Watanabe, president of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation and a former vice finance minister for international affairs.

However, since 2000, Tokyo has shifted its policy.

"We have taken all measures that are necessary by eliminating regulations. Circulation of currencies should be left up to demand in the market," said a senior Finance Ministry official.

Partly due to this stance, cross-border trade settlements in yen have remained unchanged over the last 20 years, accounting for about 40 percent of exports from Japan and 20 percent of imports.

In April, the yen ranked third, following the U.S. dollar and the euro, as the preferred currency for foreign exchange trading. But in June, it accounted for only 3 percent of foreign currency reserves around the world.

While this has prompted some old-timers from the Finance Ministry to suggest increasing the use of the yen in settlements by Japanese companies going abroad, one current ministry official scoffed at such concerns.

"It is still premature to hold discussions about the yuan defeating the yen," the official said.

(This article was written by Naoyuki Fukuda and Keiko Yoshioka.)

Will Taiwan DRAM makers survive in '11?

Will Taiwan DRAM makers survive in '11?

Mark LaPedus

12/31/2010 5:50 PM EST

SAN JOSE, Calif. - The DRAM market is down-again.

Taiwan's DRAM makers survived the last downturn. This time around, the island's vendors may run out of luck.

Taiwan's Nanya Technology Corp. will survive, because that it has a parent with deep pockets. But still, Nanya continues to lose money.

Powerchip Semiconductor Corp. and ProMOS Technologies Inc. are simply in trouble. Both vendors lack the capital and technology to keep up with their rivals in South Korea.

The signs are bad for Powerchip. For example, DRAM maker Rexchip Electronics Corp. has suspended product shipments to Powerchip, because it can't pay its bills and is strapped for cash, according to Bloomberg.

Taiwan-based Rexchip was established in 2006, as a 300-mm DRAM manufacturing joint venture between Taiwan's Powerchip and Japan's Elpida Memory Inc. At one time, Rexchip was a 50:50 venture between the firms.

In recent times, Elpida gained control of Rexchip. Elpida has a 69 percent stake in Rexchip. Still, Powerchip gets 31 percent of the output at Rexchip.

Rumors have re-surfaced that Elpida may buy Powerchip and ProMOS. An attempt to weld several small Taiwanese DRAM makers together into a single entity using government money fell apart earlier this year. Taiwan Innovation Memory Co., having been rejected as a suitable case for government investment as a DRAM company, is trying to reinvent itself as a NAND flash supplier.

This has left Powerchip, ProMOS. and Winbond Electronics Corp. as being essentially too small to keep up in the capital intensive DRAM business and among possible targets for Elpida.

Elpida (Tokyo, Japan) is looking to buy stakes of 20 percent to 30 percent and deals may lead to takeovers, although no negotiations are under way, according to reports.


Jump to: navigation, search
Airbus SAS
Type Subsidiary
Industry Aerospace
Founded 1970 (as Airbus Industrie)
2001 (Airbus as SAS)
Headquarters Blagnac, France
Key people Thomas Enders, CEO
Harald Wilhelm, CFO
John Leahy, CCO
Fabrice Brégier, COO
Products Commercial airliners (list)
Revenue increase €27.45 billion (FY 2008)[1]
Net income increase €1.597 billion (FY 2008)
Employees 52,000[2]
Parent EADS
Subsidiaries Airbus Military
Website www.airbus.com

Airbus SAS (English pronunciation: /ˈɛərbʌs/, French: [ɛʁbys] ( listen), German: [ˈɛːɐbʊs]) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, near Toulouse,[3][4] and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners.

Airbus began as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers. Consolidation of European defence and aerospace companies around the turn of the 21st century allowed the establishment of a simplified joint-stock company in 2001, owned by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%). After a protracted sales process BAE sold its shareholding to EADS on 13 October 2006.[5]

Airbus employs around 57,000 people at sixteen sites in four European Union countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Spain. Final assembly production is at Toulouse (France), Hamburg (Germany), Seville (Spain) and, since 2009, Tianjin (People's Republic of China).[6] Airbus has subsidiaries in the United States, Japan, PRC and India.

The company is known for producing and marketing the first commercially viable fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320,[7][8] and the world's largest airliner, the A380.


经济纵横 | 2010.12.31




汉堡芬肯维德的空客厂区。第6车间。一个金属楼梯通向上方。目前这里正立着一架几周后将要出厂的A380。空客A380和A320的全部机舱都是在汉堡工厂里设计和安装的。在法国图卢兹总装的飞机也要到汉堡来安装机舱。空机舱里Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 机舱里客德国公司发言人普朗(Tore Prang)说:"我们公司在各个国家对不同的飞机部分有各自的责任。在德国,我们负责机身和机舱。也就说,空客的所有机身和机舱相关的事情都由汉堡操纵。"



空客在汉堡被制造着Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 空客在汉堡被制造着正 如A380的生产过程所显示的,这种分工合作方式并非永远能顺风顺水。生产方面出现了一系列问题,法国和德国的工作不能很好地楔合,质量检查做得不够。这 些导致了世界上最大客机的出厂交货。汉堡飞机专家谢仁贝格(Cordt Schellenberg)解释道,问题是不可避免的,因为各国用的IT系统就不一样。

现在,上述这些问题已经得到了解决,但A380的系列生产仍然有些个磕磕绊绊。空中客车分国分场地生产,是历史的产物,但这个集团现在已经从原来的 企业结构中脱身而出,谢仁贝格认为,原来只是体现劳动分工的不同的生产场地,现在也成了关键技术的分配场地,"我们有真正的专家,他们坐在欧洲各地。这显 然是空中客车的核心所在。"


空客天津厂开业Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 空客天津厂开业他同时指出,坐在不同国家的专家们之间也存在着一种竞争关系,"在开发远程机型A350时就明显感觉得到这一点。为了得到有吸引力的工作领域,争夺得有多么激烈,在空客内部。各国之间,生产场地之间的竞争是一件非常好的事情。"

2007年开始执行的企业整顿清理计划"Power 8"使整个企业的结构发生了巨变:诺登汉姆、瓦热尔和不来梅被清出集团,归属于"Premium Aerotec",法国梅奥特和圣纳寨尔的工厂被合并。正是这些工厂生产着空客的小部件。谢仁贝格认为这种做法已被证明是错误的,因为"这些工厂已经不再 是仅仅生产零配件的企业,而是他们之间也展开了企业间的竞争。企业的领导人有自己开发新技术的任务,然后把新开发成果提供给空客,但这些成果同样可以提供 给其他人,可以跨工业领域地提供。"

机身里的忙碌Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 机身里的忙碌空客近年来也已开始把一些生产任务转移到欧洲以外的地方去进行,在低工资国家建立零配件厂,这不光是为了节约成本,而同时也是为了能更好地开发当地市场。


作者:Verena Herb 编译:平心


2010年12月30日 星期四

Going Green' with CNN: Nike

今午12/31/2010 看 CNN 的 Going Green 節目 其一是韓國的海朝潮發電
青島啤酒廠 如PHILIPS/MOTOROLA等大企業都是中國大污染場
而Nike 公司的許多新產品都採用回收的塑膠料重加工

Going Green' with CNN


June 11, 2009

In just six months' time, the world will be watching as several thousand delegates descend on Copenhagen for the most important climate change talks since the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Japan in 1997.

Much is at stake. What is agreed at the United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change starting December 7 will determine how far individual countries are prepared to go to curtail their carbon emissions when the Kyoto agreement expires at the end of 2012.

Industrialized countries are being asked to give firm numbers for measurable reductions. And then there's the question of developing countries. What are they prepared to do to combat climate change? How much is the developed world willing to help them? How will new technologies and adaptation be financed?



衛生署已擬對新定義,明年三月正式公告。 衛生署在98年7月曾召開座談會決議,訂出只有學名為Hirsutella sinensis的菌種才能稱作「冬蟲夏草」,本來衛生署去年9月就要實施,部分產業界以及學者提出不同意見,因此暫緩施行,在新公告實施前,現有的「冬蟲夏草」產品仍屬合法 ...

JAL workers to sue over dismissals


JAL workers to sue over dismissals


A group of more than 100 pilots and flight attendants of Japan Airlines Corp. will sue their employer next month demanding that their dismissals be nullified.

Their unions are organizing the action as the carrier under rehabilitation announced Tuesday it will dismiss about 170 workers in the two job categories on Friday.

JAL has given advance notices of termination to about 200 workers, of whom only 30 agreed to voluntarily retire.

The airline said it will let go about 80 pilots and 60 flight attendants as well as 30 others who are currently on leave as part of JAL's efforts to restructure itself.

"It's a measure to optimize the work force to meet our curtailed operations. It was a gut-wrenching decision," JAL President Masaru Onishi told a news conference.

As part of its court-managed rehabilitation, the JAL group is set to dismiss 16,000 workers by the end of March.

The carrier sought voluntary retirement of 1,500 workers, but failed to reach the targets for pilots and crew members. It began a dismissal procedure on Dec. 9.

JAL's Cabin Crew Union (CCU) and the JAL Flight Crew Union, to which most workers facing the ax belong, have argued that the dismissals are invalid.

They said the number of those who accepted voluntary retirement, including those on leave, has already surpassed the reduction target in the JAL group. They also said the company unfairly targeted employees based on age and history of illness.

The unions say most of those to be dismissed will eventually join the group suit, which will be filed with the Tokyo District Court in mid-January.

"We have distrust in the management that went ahead with dismissals without fulfilling all the requirements," CCU leader Taeko Uchida said. "But we still think there are ways to avoid (dismissals) through a management decision. Labor-management negotiations should continue."

2010年12月29日 星期三


10大科技敗筆 iPhone天線門最糗
CNN評選今年十大科技敗筆,iPhone 4信號接收發生問題的「天線門事件」位居首位。 (彭博)

〔編譯陳成良/綜合報導〕美國有線電視新聞網(CNN)網站二十八日評選出二○一○年十大科技敗筆,蘋果iPhone4的「天線門」位居榜首,而Google的Nexus One智慧手機也上榜。其他幾個科技失敗還包括3D電視、微軟Kind手機等。

一、 iPhone4天線門





微軟四月推出了兩款智慧手機Kin One和Kin Two,鎖定喜歡娛樂及社交的年輕消費群,但功能有限,數據服務價格又高昂,上市不到兩個月即下架。

四、Google的Nexus One手機

Google的Android手機作業系統今年大展手腳,至年底使用Android系統的智慧手機賣得比iPhone好,但Google的自有品牌Nexus One手機卻並不成功。Google選擇線上銷售就是個錯誤,顯然用戶還是喜歡在購買前把玩一番。

五、 Facebook隱私問題


六、Google Buzz

Google發佈Buzz社交網路服務,延續在八月宣告失敗的Google Wave,原本應被視為即時通訊的革命,但再次因違反隱私問題告終。

七、Gawker Media網站遭駭侵

美國著名的八卦網站Gawker Media集團內九個網站十二月初遭駭客入侵,竊取網站原始程式及至少一百三十萬筆包含帳號名稱、密碼、信箱的資料。

八、內容農場(Content Farm)

Demand Media、美國線上的Seed和雅虎(Yahoo!)今年買下的Associated Content都採取類似的「內容農場」營運模式:利用網友的搜尋紀錄來選擇一些主題,然後支付給「寫手」微薄稿費發表相關內容,再放在網路上吸引點擊 率。這違背了網際網路的宗旨。



十、iTunes Ping

今年九月,蘋果發佈了iTunes10 ,其中多了音樂社交網路Ping,卻未和Facebook整合。其實,Ping擺明就是想吸引用戶購買音樂,當然不會得到用戶青睞。



另一方面,郭台銘在談到企業責任的落實上,則提出四大鴻海所做的努力,包括:一、昨日剛開會決議,明年台灣及大陸員工薪資幅度調整;二、由沿海遷廠內陸 時,請大陸政府配合幫員工打造科技智慧城;三、資訊透明,今年鴻海營收有60%成長,但秉持「心中有樂觀,說法要保守」原則,因此保守維持每年15%成長 的目標。

面對明年景氣和新台幣升值問題,郭台銘強調「沒有景氣、只有競爭力」問題,台灣可以和日本學習,像日幣升到80幾元,他們的企業還能活下去,而台灣和日本 也還有很大的結合空間。不過,郭台銘也暗批某「競爭對手」雖然優秀,但企業主被判過刑坐牢,公司還要「傳子」,不符合誠信的經營很難有百年績業。



China to Tighten Limits on Rare Earth Exports

David Gray/Reuters

A worker at the Jinyuan Company’s smelting workshop stirred cauldrons of the rare earth metal Lanthanum before pouring it into molds near the town of Damao, in China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

HONG KONG — China’s commerce ministry announced on Tuesday in Beijing a steep reduction in export quotas for rare earth metals in the first months of next year, a move that threatens to cause further difficulties for manufacturers already struggling with short supplies and soaring prices.

Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Rare earth metals about to be loaded onto a ship in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, east China.

Readers' Comments

The reduction in quotas for the early months of 2011 — a 35 percent drop in tonnage from the first half of this year — is the latest in a series of measures by Beijing that has gradually curtailed much of the world’s supply of rare earths.

China mines more than 95 percent of the global supply of the metals, which are essential for smartphones, electric cars, many computer components and a range of military hardware. In addition, the country mines 99 percent of the least common rare earths, the so-called heavy rare earths that are used in trace amounts but are crucial to many clean energy applications and electronics.

In what seemed to be an effort to reassure traders and users of rare earths, the commerce ministry said in a follow-up statement late Tuesday on its Web site that it had not decided what the total export quotas would be for all of 2011. The ministry typically issues a second, supplementary batch of quotas each summer.

The ministry said on Tuesday night that companies should not make guesses about the total export quotas for next year based on the initial reductions issued earlier in the day.

“We will be considering the production of rare earths in China, domestic demand and sustainable development needs to determine” the full quotas for the entire year, the ministry Web site quoted its foreign trade department director as saying, without naming the director.

Earlier this month, China’s finance ministry raised export taxes to 25 percent from 15 percent for some of the most crucial rare earths. The ministry also extended taxes to exports of some rare earth alloys that previously were not taxed.

China gradually reduced its annual tonnage of export quotas from 2006 to 2009, then cut the tonnage of allowed exports by more than half in the second half of 2010.

Separately, the Chinese government imposed an unannounced embargo on shipments of raw rare earth minerals to Japan from mid-September to late November, a ban that started during a territorial disagreement over disputed islands.

In addition, rule changes for export quotas have had the effect of reducing the availability of supplies leaving China. Until now, the quotas mostly covered alloys and oxides with a rare earth content of at least 50 percent.

Starting next year, industry executives said, exports of some additional alloys will face restrictions as well, which will have the effect of tightening quotas by about 6 percent.

The commerce ministry provided no reasons for its reduction in initial export quotas for next year, and a ministry spokesman declined to elaborate. White House trade officials have begun an investigation into whether China’s export restrictions violate World Trade Organization rules; the W.T.O. prohibits export quotas and export tariffs except for environmental protection and national security.

China’s latest restrictions drew a quick response from the Office of the United States Trade Representative in Washington.

“We are very concerned about China’s export restraints on rare earth minerals,” a spokeswoman for the office, Nefeterius Akeli McPherson, said. “We have raised our concerns with China and we are continuing to work closely on the issue with stakeholders.”

Business leaders and officials in Europe have also raised the alarm, especially in Germany, where a large manufacturing sector relies heavily on imports of Chinese rare earths.

Until a few months ago, Chinese officials said that their rare earth policies were aimed at forcing foreign industries to move high-tech factories to China so as to have access to Chinese rare earths. But as trade frictions have increased, they have given greater emphasis to environmental concerns.

A Chinese official said on Tuesday that pollution worries about rare earth mining were sincere.

“The government is paying more attention to environmental protection, and is retiring older facilities and older technologies,” said the official, who insisted on anonymity because of the political implications of rare earth policies, and declined to discuss specifics of the quotas.

Dudley Kingsnorth, a longtime rare earth industry executive and consultant in Perth, Australia, said China’s long series of restrictions, together with uncertainty about Chinese policies, were making it increasingly likely that mines would be opened in the next three years in other countries.

“It’s only a matter of time before China is not the major supplier to the rest of the world,” he said, while adding that there might be supply problems before the other mines can open.

Japanese companies account for half the world’s consumption outside China and have some stockpiles, but have kept secret the size of these stockpiles.

Toshiyuki Shiga, the chief operating officer of Nissan Motor, said at a news conference on Dec. 20 at the Guangzhou auto show in China that his company had weathered the Chinese export halt this autumn with stockpiles held by Nissan’s suppliers. But he warned that any further Chinese export restrictions would create problems.

“If this continues, it becomes a big issue for all of the Japanese auto manufacturers, and not just auto manufacturers, but electronics manufacturers and others,” Mr. Shiga said.

The commerce ministry said on its Web site on Tuesday that it had awarded export quotas totaling 14,446 tons to 31 Chinese-owned and foreign-owned companies.

A year ago, the ministry had awarded 16,304 tons of export quotas to 22 Chinese-owned companies and 5,978 tons of quotas to 10 foreign-owned companies, for a total of 22,282 tons.

The Chinese commerce ministry denied earlier this month that it would reduce export quotas in 2011. Mr. Kingsnorth said that it was still theoretically possible for this to be true, if the government sharply increased its quota allocations for the second half of 2011 to offset the steep drop in quotas allocated at the start of the year.

The ministry typically makes a large allocation of quotas in December that can be used at any time in the following year, and then a supplemental allocation of quotas the following summer. In July of this year, the ministry made a supplemental allocation of 7,976 tons to Chinese-owned and foreign-owned companies.

World consumption outside China totals about 55,000 tons of rare earth minerals a year, and is rising about 7 percent a year, with increases at twice that pace for the particularly high-price minerals needed for clean energy. Annual production outside China is around 7,000 tons but poised to rise to at least 50,000 tons a year within three years. A quirk in how China calculates quotas means that two tons of quota must be used to export a ton of rare earths for some alloys.

The ministry also said that one company previously receiving quotas, not identified as foreign or domestic, had temporarily lost its rights to quotas because it was replacing equipment.

Beijing imposes curb on rare earth export quotas

China will cut rare earth exports next year, a move that heightens global concerns over the country’s near-monopoly on production of the minerals.


The commerce ministry announced a 2011 first round of 14,446 tonnes of rare earth export quotas, 4.5 per cent down on last year on an annualised basis.


The lower quota will contribute to a tightening market for rare earths, a group of 17 elements crucial for products including BlackBerry devices, wind turbines and guided missiles.


China, which produces 97 per cent of global rare earths, has reduced exports repeatedly over several years, sending prices higher and prompting a rush of investment in rare earth mines outside China.


The US trade representative office said last week it was continuing an investigation into whether China’s rare earths export policies constituted a violation of its commitments to the World Trade Organisation. Beijing’s curbs have also prompted outcries from Japan and Europe.


While the new quota is significantly lower than the quotas issued for the first half of 2010, it is higher than the quota that was issued for the second half of the year.


The government has long maintained that export restrictions are essential to combat illegal mining and environmental degradation.


“[These quota levels] are part of a unified effort to govern the sector that includes better environmental regulations, better mining regulations, and measures on all fronts,” said Niu Jingkao, deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Society for Rare Earths.

中国稀土学会(Chinese Society of Rare Earths)副秘书长牛京考表示:“(上述配额水平)是治理稀土行业联合行动的一部分,这项行动还包括改善环境和采矿监管,以及所有各方面的措施。”

Industry executives were disappointed the ministry did not make provisions to differentiate between some light rare earths, which are common and relatively cheap, and the more expensive heavy rare earths.


Separately, Wang Caifeng, an ex-government official, said on the sidelines of an industry conference that an association representing China’s rare earth miners could be formed as early as May.



2010年12月28日 星期二





  • 2010-12-29
  • 工商時報
  • 【本報訊】

 台灣地區五個直轄市的市長上周末風光就職,也意謂著新五都時代的正式來 臨。然而由於新市長和市議員的就職日是周末,本周一才算是五都的第一天正式上班日。根據媒體報導,除了台北市和新北市轄區,組織完全或基本沒有變動,因此 上班首日大致未出現亂象之外,台中市、台南市、高雄市因為是兩個縣市的合併,因此不只造成民眾洽公的不便,甚至連相關公務人員也傳出因單位整併、辦公場所 移轉而出現找不到辦公桌的狀況,當然就更遑論業務的無縫銜接了。

 誠然五都出現這種種亂象也許可視為只是過度時期的短暫現象,大家也不希望前台北縣長周錫瑋「至少亂一年」的預言真的出現。不過,衡平來 看,諸如調離原單位的主管上班找不到辦公桌,或者警局電腦系統臨陣斷線,這些亂象真的只能歸咎於公務行政部門事前的規劃作業太過粗糙,以及相關公務人員的 被動、老大心態。如果說學生參加聯考都會被告知事前要到考場熟悉環境以免臨時找不到教室,則這些找不到辦公場所或辦公桌的公務人員簡直連中學生都不如。而 以這樣的心態,要期待他們能夠做好為民服務的工作,豈非緣木求魚。

 新五都的亂象固然凸顯事前規劃的不周,以及配套的不足,但就五都新制的建構與運作來說,新五都固然已照預定日期掛牌上路,但攸關地方財務 自主與財源規劃的「財政收支劃分法」與「公債法」,行政部門早已把修正草案送達立法院審議,但立法部門就是無法趕在新五都改制啟動前,完成相關法案的三讀 立法程序,致使新五都市長事實上是在財源先天不足,法制配套不全的窘況下跛足啟動。

 當然,我們也理解前述二法迄未能於立院過關,與兩法的高度複雜性有關。不過,基於依法行政之理,再複雜的法案,立法院總應該有個處理時 效,擱置遷延其實也就代表著立法效率的不彰,乃至立委諸公的怠於行使職權,而最終則會造成政府整體施政效能的下降,以及面臨法制不全的質疑。

 「財政收支劃分法」與「公債法」的修法,未能配合五都改制升格的步調,立法部門應如何亡羊補牢自然是一個必須正視的課題。但是立法部門如 果連這個具時效性的法案都無法如期完成修法,則我們就不免要對預計從民國101年正式全面啟動的行政院新部會架構之立法前景,要感到憂心忡忡了。

 如所周知,自從今年1月12日立法院三讀完成行政院組織改造法案,行政當局也就預告所有的新部會以及下屬署局等中央行政新體系,將以兩年 的籌備期從事組織整併、立法、人員歸併等作業,以期從101年1月1日開始展現經組織再造後的中央行政部門新面貌。而根據這樣的規劃方案,據報導行政當局 的確展開積極規劃,將院屬29個二級機關的組織調整修正草案,分三個梯次預計於今年底前悉數提報行政院院會討論定案,再分別函送立法院審議立法。

 就我們所知,行政部門在執行相關部門的精簡整併過程中,面對各相關部門本位主義的排斥抗拒,其實可以說是困難重重,但大體上也都能逐一克 服依時限提報院會核定。接下來真正的挑戰其實來自於立法院是否願意以及是否有能力配合時程,利用明年的上、下兩個會期,完成行政院所屬各部會及下屬局署機 關的組織條例修法工程。

 在此,我們姑且先不懷疑立法部門的配合意願,但光是以立法院的議事效能,是否能夠在一年內完成這許多的組織修法工作,如果參考立法院連配 套五都改制的「公債法」和「財政收支劃分法」都無法及時完成修法的前車之鑑,則我們幾乎可以斷言立法院絕無可能在一年之內,完成落實政府組織再造所不可少 的組織修法工程。因為這其中所涉及的,遠不止院屬的29個部會組織,另外還要加計部會下屬的70個署局組織,以及為數眾多將以行政法人型態出現的專業性行 政部門。據估計這三者加總起來,將有多達147個組織法案。準此,立法院想要在一年之內,把所有的147個機關的組織法規修法完畢,根本是經驗和實務上的 不可能。

 有鑑於此,我們除了期待立法部門應加強提升立法議事效率,好讓政府組織再造能夠早日落實之外,同時也要提醒行政部門,認知101年政院新 部會架構全面啟動的不切實際,早為綢繆。否則101年匆促上路,亂象一定更甚五都,而未能準時上路又要蒙受政策跳票的質疑。如何在此兩難局中,找出兼全對 策,是執政當局必須面對的課題。

史迪格里茲 金融業污染全世界 該課新稅 (天下雜誌)

獨家:諾貝爾經濟學獎得主 史迪格里茲 金融業污染全世界 該課新稅

作者:陳一姍  出處:天下雜誌 463期 2010/12

羅斯福智庫首席經濟學家,諾貝爾經濟學獎得主史迪格里茲(Joseph E. Stiglitz),是當今少數知名度高,又具備學術地位的經濟學者。他對美國赤字與國債問題提出建議,對台灣也極具參考價值。


羅斯福研究院現任董事長為小羅斯福總統的媳婦。旗下延攬了與歐巴馬內閣關係密切的卡特(Bo Cutter)、知名女權運動者雀斯樂(Ellen Chesler)等。

小羅斯福總統的新政,讓美國走出一九三○年代經濟大蕭條,在如今金融海嘯過後的美國,時常為人懷念。羅斯福智庫首席經濟學家,諾貝爾經濟學獎得主史 迪格里茲(Joseph E. Stiglitz),是當今少數知名度高,又具備學術地位的經濟學者。《天下雜誌》將於二○一一年出版《Stiglitz Report》,這是他率領聯合國多位專家,所提出的新全球化藍圖。











從投資報酬率來看,現在是美國政府進行公共投資最好的時機。第一,美國已有好多年,在教育、科技與公共建設的投資不足;第二,現在美國的利率處於歷 史低點;第三,美國經濟在可見的未來幾年,恢復還是很緩慢。政府現在一塊錢的投資,將可產生一塊半到二塊的回報。即使以五年期公債殖利率七.五%的成本來 計算,長期還是划得來,反而可以降低赤字。卡翠娜颶風後,紐奧良的重建是最好的例證,公共投資可以創造極大的回報。

至於該縮減的支出,第一優先就是給企業的補貼。有兩個產業的補貼,我認為最該注意:一是農業,二是對生質能源相關的農業。這些補貼不僅對環境有害, 也傷害開發中國家的窮人,已使美國成為全球貿易抗議的對象。的確,補貼農業可能會補貼到貧窮的弱勢,問題是,為何貧窮的農民比貧窮的美國人更該享受補貼。 更何況,針對特定產業補貼,好處多數流到特定企業。












第一是分紅稅。此次金融海嘯最讓人感到不平的,首推海嘯的罪魁禍首,闖禍的領到了高薪,一分錢都不用繳回;連被紓困的銀行高層還敢領高薪。社會無法 接受,闖了禍還能分紅。更何況,高額分紅是美國社會貧富差距惡化的元兇之一,也鼓勵這些人短視,追逐高風險的冒險行為。課分紅稅引導追求長期利益,對於社 會公平也有幫助。


第三是成立銀行救援基金(Bank Rescue Fund)。我認為,國會通過的金融改革法案尚不足以預防下次金融風暴的發生。尤其,它沒有根本解決銀行「大到不能倒」的窘境。經濟學者普遍都認同,「大 到不能倒」導致道德風險,使得經營者追逐高風險行為。因為政府一定會救,使得這些大銀行能夠得到低成本的資金,對小銀行,這是另一種隱性的不公平競爭。未 來應該針對不同舉債、規模的金融機構,課徵不同的救援稅。





2010年12月27日 星期一

鸿海12亿美元洽购日立显示器业务Hon Hai in talks on $1.2bn Hitachi flat-screen deal

鴻 海董事長郭台銘今(29)日應邀出席櫃買中心2010資本市場論壇,有關新台幣匯率升值的問題,並沒有正面回應,因為「一談就會被過度放大」,不過他指 出,日圓升值到「80」多元兌1美元,企業還能生存,所以最近常去日本「取經」,台、日間就「經濟技術學」來講,有很大的結合空間。




另外,郭台銘也透露出台、日合作的訊息,他說,台灣就經濟地理學來講,台灣有很大的生存空間,就經濟技術學來講,台灣與日本有很大的結合空間,就 政治經濟學來講台灣有清廉的政府及兩岸和平,台灣經濟本質不是常常走順境,順境人人會走,只是快慢問題,逆境才能看公司能否生存。

原文網址: 聯日抗韓?郭台銘:台日在「經濟技術學」有很大結合空間


2010年12月28日 07:14 AM

Taiwan’s Hon Hai in talks on $1.2bn Hitachi flat-screen deal

Hon Hai is in talks to acquire a majority stake in Hitachi’s flat-panel display business in a deal worth $1.2bn, say people familiar with the negotiations.

知情人士透露,台湾鸿海(Hon Hai)正在谈判收购日立(Hitachi)平板显示器业务的多数股份,交易金额价值12亿美元。

The acquisition would take the Taiwanese group to the top tier of producers of small and medium-sized liquid crystal display panels with an equal or slightly bigger market share than Sharp, the current leader.


Hon Hai is already the biggest contract electronics maker but the move could see it produce screens for mobile devices and tablets in Japan, and bolster its ability to make advanced components for smartphones and computers such as Apple’s iPhone and iPad. It is the largest maker of Apple devices but faces increasing competition for the assembly contracts.

鸿海目前是最大的合同电子制造商。此次收购将让该公司能在日本生产移动设备和平板电脑 所需的显示屏,并提高其为智能手机和电脑(如苹果(Apple)的iPhone和iPad)生产先进配件的能力。鸿海虽然是苹果设备最大的制造商,但该公 司所面临的装配合同竞争越来越激烈。

Hitachi Display, in which Hon Hai wants to invest, is a lossmaking venture between Hitachi, which owns 75 per cent, and Canon. Since combining their display operations in 2005, the two groups have been unable to turn a profit, a failure blamed on a lack of scale.

鸿海有意投资的日立显示器(Hitachi Display)是日立与佳能(Canon)的合资企业,其中日立占75%股份。日立显示器正处在亏损之中。这两家集团自2005年把显示器业务合并以来一直未能实现盈利,人们把失败的原因归结于缺乏规模。

Hitachi Display’s biggest customers are Japanese mobile phone makers, which make almost no sales outside Japan.


The company controls desirable technology, not least its IPS screens, which are clear even when viewed at oblique angles.


Hon Hai, part of the Foxconn group, has bought two tele- vision factories from Sony outside Japan – in Slovakia and Mexico – but the Hitachi Display acquisition would be its first big foray into the country that long dominated consumer electronics production.


Most new manufacturing capacity for large-size LCD panels used in TV sets is being built in China, the world’s largest market for flat-panel TV sets. But Japan has the edge in more intricate small panels, say industry insiders said.


Japan’s Nikkei newspaper reported that Hon Hai would pay Y100bn ($1.2bn) for a controlling stake. The funds would add a second plant to Hitachi Display’s LCD factory north of Tokyo, which would begin production in 2012, it said.



2010年12月26日 星期日

Toshiba to build new plant for smartphone LCDs


photoToshiba's Oita factory produces large-scale integrated circuits for use in digital household appliances. (Toshiba Corp.)

Toshiba Corp. will construct a plant for medium- and small-size liquid crystal panels with Apple Inc. for use in smartphones, part of a larger series of moves to reorganize and refocus its operations for electronics components.

Sources said Friday the plant will be built in Nomi, Ishikawa Prefecture, on a 100,000-square meter plot belonging to a Toshiba subsidiary.

Toshiba and Apple are together expected to invest more than 100 billion yen ($1.2 billion) in the plant. Construction is slated to start in March with operations set to begin in April 2012.

The plant will employ about 250 people and focus on producing liquid crystal panels for use in the ever-popular iPhone, according to sources.

They said that Apple sounded out Toshiba about increasing production after it faced a chronic shortage of panels capable of providing high-resolution images and handling multiple functions.

Toshiba had to scale back its domestic production of small- and medium-sized panels following a drop in demand with the global economic downturn triggered by the collapse of the brokerage firm Lehman Brothers in 2008.

According to the sources, Apple will shoulder a three-quarters share of the investment burden, while Toshiba will cover the remainder.

Apple, which pioneered the smartphone market, is rapidly starting to feel the heat from rival products using Google's operation software.

To stay ahead of its competitors in the market, Apple concluded it that it was vital to secure a steady supply of key components and approached Sharp Corp. as well as Toshiba.

Sharp is also said to be mulling a boost of production with support from Apple.

Meantime, Toshiba unfurled its plan for reorganizing its production of large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) used in TVs and household appliances, which includes outsourcing production to multiple outside companies, among them South Korean rival Samsung Electronics Co.

Samsung is now maneuvering to gain supremacy in the production of flash-memory chips, which is Toshiba's mainstay. Fierce competition from the South Korean manufacturer was said to have forced Toshiba to withdraw from production of another line of chips in the past, namely DRAMs.

Despite their rivalry, the partnership is part of a trend in the industry to divvy up labor among competitors.

Another key move under Toshiba's reorganization plan is its plan to sell off its semiconductor production facility in Isahaya, Nagasaki Prefecture, to Sony Corp for about 50 billion yen.

The moves are meant to lighten the burden created by production facilities for non-mainstay semiconductors and refocusing resources on growth areas.

Toshiba hopes to focus its energies on flash-memory chips, which are in much demand for use in smartphones and other handsets.

Toshiba has already begun construction of a production facility at its Yokkaichi plant in Mie Prefecture, with plans for production to start in July 2011.

(This article was written by Masaki Hashida and Kenichi Goromaru)

2010年12月25日 星期六

Roy Neuberger

“So Far, So Good: The First 94 Years” (John Wiley & Sons, 1997).這本薄薄的94歲自傳我在1996年讀過 現在仍記得他的勸告 慈善事業雖然不是商業 不過應該以商業精神來經營

現在作者仙逝 取BBC 和紐約時報的訃文紀念他

Roy Neuberger“So Far, So Good: The First 94 Years”...

Google拉在地廣告 靠call out大隊




Google的地域和在地服務部門副總裁梅爾(Marissa Mayer)表示,Google的搜尋有20%是在搜尋本地資訊,在地企業如果加強廣告,將能吸引更多客戶上門。她說,由於新推出的在地廣告服務簡單又有效,因此Google已加強這方面的投資。

奧勒岡州波特蘭市的輪胎店「布朗輪胎中心」經理科狄諾女士說,每天接到拉廣告的電話,她都講兩句就掛掉,但上月接到當地Google業務代表的電話,她仔細聽完。她很快就同意月付25美元 (台幣740元)廣告費。









2010年12月23日 星期四

我對發展TPS 的一些看法

凡是互動 雙方必受益


便利商 全家
鞋業 寶成或豐泰 兩家都是上市
醫院 署立醫院群 (屏東等)......

(我曾將美國半導體公司的給某公司董事長 未果 這是美國最大的成就之一)

然而 我認為台灣可能最有貢獻的是桃園機場
(TOYOTA公司曾支援關西機場 雖然前幾1-2年因事調回)

2010年12月16日 星期四

藥價是黑洞嗎? 誰的黑洞

要從實際著手 而不只是浮面的比較



● 加拿大


◎ 誰能消除藥價黑洞?



◎ 藥價差,必須透明

藥 價黑洞不可能消滅,但可以要求「透明化」。醫療院所大量進藥享有折扣,這折扣必須明白記載在發票上。台灣健保的醫師診察費、診療費、藥師調劑費、病房費偏 低,醫院、健保藥局必須以「藥價差」來彌補,這是事實,但「藥價差」有多少應該對健保局公開,讓健保局得以掌握醫療院所以及健保藥局是否得到超額利潤,據 以進行調整。

◎ 總額預算抵銷「藥價黑洞」

雖然醫療院所可以賺到藥價差,但台灣健保特殊的「總額預算」制度,讓醫 界「賺不夠賠」。總額預算制度底下,每個健保分區、基層或大醫院,每年能得到的費用是固定的。健保一年預算若扣除藥費,假設是4000億好了,但實際上醫 界一年提供的服務量可能是4500-5000億。原本健保局規定可拿新台幣1元的服務,在總額制度底下,醫界拿不到9毛。也就是說,醫界「失血」的部分, 遠大於藥價差。

◎ 健保局表現不錯,但一直被醜化


消 基會屢發新聞稿表示,美國人吃一顆藥,台灣人要吃6.6顆藥。但根據OECD 2007年統計,每人每年門診藥費支出,美國是871美元,加拿大725美元,日本539美元,韓國318美元,台灣才191美元。台灣人吃藥多,主要是 因為感冒時要求「趕快好」,所以一次吞下很多藥,美國醫師只會要你到藥局買普拿疼然後多喝開水多休息。就藥費支出來看,台灣節省得不可思議。藥費壓低,台 灣的藥價黑洞,自然是比其他國家少了很多。只是,這麼簡單的道理,你看報紙、看電視,永遠不會有人告訴你。

2010年12月13日 星期一

IBM pitches "smart" cities as planet savers


IBM pitches "smart" cities as planet savers

SAN FRANCISCO — IBM is helping cities worldwide get "smarter" about using resources in ways that are good for the Earth as well as local budgets.

IBM announced that the coastal Texas town of Corpus Christi has joined cities such as London, Sydney, Stockholm, and Amsterdam in using Internet Age tools to better manage water, trash, parks and more.

"Look at the way the planet is evolving in terms of demographics and environmental considerations," said Guruduth Banavar, chief technology officer of global public sector efforts at IBM.

"It is pretty easy to see that we need to do some things dramatically differently."

Urbanization and climbing population are putting stress on the environment, and problems are exacerbated by inefficient uses of energy, water and land.

Technology can glean information about pipes, streets, parks, traffic and other once "dumb" parts of cities to effectively target solutions and, in some cases, fix things before they break, according to Banavar.

"There is a lot of information available to us through technology that is not being put to use very well," he said.

New York State based IBM and rivals such as Siemens in Germany and Cisco in California are providing systems that collect, share, analyze and act on data from historically "dumb" things in communities.

Banavar used the example of Corpus Christi, which went from tracking city work crews and projects on paper and index cards to getting real-time feedback and analytics regarding roads, buildings and more electronically.

"Now, they have information to say why problems occur, where they are and what can be done to prevent them," Banavar said. "At the end of the day, it is all about managing information to improve operations."

IBM software is being used in Corpus Christi to manage wastewater treatment plants, reservoirs, approximately 1,250 miles (2,012 kilometers) of wastewater mains and a water treatment plant that can hold 170 million gallons (643,520 cubic meters).

The system is relied on to provide water to the city's more than 280,000 residents.

Tracking of water pipe repairs revealed that nearly a third of the problems were at 1.4 percent of the sites served. Plans were put in place to fix underlying problems and cut ongoing repair costs.

Data analysis also showed that small pipes accounted for a disproportionate number of water main breaks, prompting a switch to larger pipes to avoid future troubles.

Skills of repair crew members are automatically factored into scheduling jobs.

"You can improve efficiencies maybe two-fold," Banavar said. "When problems persist, you can dig deeper to find out underlying causes and apply predictive maintenance."

Corpus Christi is going to use sensors in its trash collection program to improve recycling and handling of waste.

"We want to use information to make the planet a better place," Banavar said. "We can start solving these problems on the city level, then start connecting cities and scale out across the whole planet."

Cities can have a more selfish motivation in that better using resources means doing more with tight budgets.

"Corpus Christi is evolving into a more sustainable city," said city administrative superintendent Steve Klepper.

"We have the real-time status of city services, automated work orders and an overview of city's infrastructure to better manage our resources, as well as better maintain the city's mission-critical assets."

Collective Brands targets Indonesia

2010年12月13日 13:09 PM

Collective Brands targets Indonesia

US footwear group Collective Brands, which owns the Payless shoe stores chain, will open 15 franchised stores in Indonesia next year and is shifting a chunk of production away from China to south-east Asia’s largest economy, executives said.

旗下拥有Payless连锁鞋店的美国鞋业集团Collective Brands高管表示,该集团明年将在印尼开设15家特许经营店,并会将大块生产业务从中国迁至这个东南亚最大的经济体。

The stores are part of a big push by foreign companies, including Unilever, Nestlé and Toyota, to target Indonesia’s growing middle class, while the expansion of production reflects the strong rebound of the manufacturing sector after a decade of decline.


Collective Brands has begun sourcing from Indonesian producers to reduce dependence on China, where costs are rising. Matt Rubel, chief executive, said the company expected steadily to raise output from subcontractors in Indonesia to about 12m pairs a year by 2015. “The utopia for one-stop sourcing for quality and low price has been China . . . but utopias never last,” Mr Rubel told the Financial Times in an interview. “Today we have to do more work in redeploying to wherever we can.”

Collective Brands已经开始向印尼制造商采购,以降低对成本不断上升的中国的依赖。公司首席执行官马特•鲁贝尔(Matt Rubel)表示,公司期望稳步提高印尼分包商的供货量,到2015年达到1200万双。“中国一直是质优价廉一站式采购的乌托邦……但乌托邦从不会长 久,”鲁贝尔接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示。“今天我们必须付出更多努力,在所有有可能的地方进行重新部署。”

With China’s share of output currently about 80 per cent, Mr Rubel said he expected that to fall to about 70 per cent over the next two years, and then to about 60 per cent. Collective Brands sold nearly 170m pairs of shoes in 2009, with revenues of $3.3bn.

中国的产出目前约占80%的份额,鲁贝尔预计在未来两年会降至70%左右,然后再下降到60%左右。Collective Brands在2009年销售了近1.7亿双鞋,收入33亿美元。

Nike, the world’s largest shoe brand company, has divided production among China, Vietnam and Indonesia since the 1990s. But China’s share has also edged down over the past three years, with Vietnam now accounting for 37 per cent of its sales, China 34 per cent and Indonesia 21 per cent.


New Balance and Adidas also source millions of pairs of shoes from Indonesia every year. Moves such as Collective Brands’ could help the country surpass Vietnam this year as the world’s second-largest shoe manufacturer after China.

New Balance和阿迪达斯(Adidas)每年也从印尼采购数百万双鞋。像Collective Brands这样的举动有可能够帮助印尼在今年超过越南,成为仅次于中国的世界第二大制鞋国。

Collective Brands, which operates 4,500 Payless stores in the US, reached a franchise agreement with PT Mitra Adiperkasa in October. The first Indonesian businesses will open in the second quarter of 2011 in Jakarta and Denpasar, Bali, according to corporate secretary Fetty Kwartati. Stores are also planned in Malaysia and Singapore.

Collective Brands在美国经营着4500家 Payless连锁店,于今年10月与PT Mitra Adiperkasa达成特许经营协议。公司秘书Fetty Kwartati称,首批印尼门店将于2011年第二季度在雅加达和巴厘岛的登巴萨开业。该公司还计划在马来西亚和新加坡开店。

After being virtually wiped out by the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia’s manufacturers are bouncing back, with the economy growing at 6 per cent. Shoe production is back at pre-crisis levels. In 2010, Indonesia is expected to make 300m pairs worth $2bn-$2.5bn, said Gita Wirjawan, head of the investment co-ordination board.

印尼制造业在1997-98年的亚洲金融危机中几乎被彻底摧毁,如今已经重显生机。该国经济增长率达到了6%。鞋产量回到了危机前的水平。印尼投资协调委员会主席吉塔•维亚万(Gita Wirjawan)说,预计2010年印尼将生产3亿双鞋,价值20亿到25亿美元。

But Indonesia’s production surge is not limited to shoes. Leading food and household product makers are aggressively ramping up in the country. Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch consumer products group, will invest more than $400m by 2013.


Nestlé of Switzerland is pouring $200m into Indonesian facilities this year.


Astra International, which has roughly 50 per cent of the domestic car and motorbike market, will spend approximately $200m in 2010 and 2011.

Astra International在印尼国内汽车和摩托车市场约占50%的市场份额,该公司今明两年也将投资大约2亿美元。


2010年12月12日 星期日



  • 2010-12-12
  • 工商時報
  • 【本報訊】

 繼美國司法部對我國面板業者祭出重罰並對其高階負責人追究刑責之後,歐盟執行委員會又於日昨宣布,針對台灣和南韓五家液晶面板製造商違反歐盟運作條約第101條 (即反托拉斯法)一案,處以6億4千9百萬歐元罰金。台灣四家受罰廠商中,以奇美電子的3億歐元罰金最高。國內各界及相關部會的反應,又與上次友達高階主 管因違反反托拉斯法而被美國法院限制出境時如出一轍:「如果企業提出需求,政府會盡量協助」,「三星,要有商道!接下來走著瞧」,業者又是無語問蒼天「政 府,你在哪裡?」奇美電子大股東、鴻海集團董事長郭台銘並親自出面發表聲明,強烈表達異議。


 在前次友達事件發生後,本報社論就曾指出:「比較嚴肅的問題是,我國公平交易委員會是否與美國司法部反托拉斯局建立資訊交換與合作的管 道,以便相互協助執法……公平會應該利用此次機會與美國建立上述工作關係,先提供國人正確資訊。其次,從2006年開始美國司法部、歐盟貿易委員會、日本 及韓國公平交易委員會就已陸續對LCD面板產業進行廣泛反壟斷調查,其中涉及我國多家企業,若其果然有此等行為,勢必也會對我國市場及消費者發生影響,但是迄今未見公平會展開相關調查,公平會是否該展現公權力?」

 依據公平會制定的「對於涉外案件之處理原則」,公平會對涉外案件似乎僅依賴檢舉,該原則並沒有說明公平會將如何主動依職權調查,及如何與 外國競爭法主管機關合作取得資料,而僅規定公平會在蒐集域外資料及證據時,僅能尋求相關廠商協助取得可公開之資訊, 函請相關外國事業自願性提供該會所需資料,及函請外交部或經濟部駐外單位協助蒐集。此等規定實出於我國外交處境、域外執法困難而不得不有的妥協。然而依據 報載,歐盟執委會指控台灣和南韓6家面板廠商(含三星),在2001年10月至2006年2月間,每月一次,總計約60次於台灣的飯店,舉行代號「液晶會 議」的秘密聚會,分享商業機密資訊,涉嫌聯合操縱面板價格。若此項指控真實,則該等行為發生在我國,而且以國內廠商為主,公平會並沒有任何執法上的困難, 就必須依法調查該等台灣面板廠商有無違反我國公平交易法第14條「事業不得為聯合行為」之規定。在歐盟及美國紛紛積極行使其反托拉斯法之管轄權以保護其消 費者利益的同時,身為我國競爭法主管機關的公平會,再保持沈默就有失責之處。

 本案同時彰顯公平法不足之處。首先,對惡性重大之聯合行為,依然只能依據「先行政後司法」方式加以處分,對於業者不足以產生警惕嚇阻作 用。其次,公平法對於違法業者所處罰鍰最高僅5千萬新台幣,罰金最高也不過1億新台幣,公平會執法近二十年以來,累積的罰鍰總金額不過新台幣27億2千萬 元,相對於歐盟此次處罰台灣廠商罰鍰新台幣260億元,真是天壤之別。而歐盟罰鍰之所以這麼高的原因,就是最高可以課處違法業者上一年度營業額十分之一, 公平法實在應改變罰鍰計算之標準並提高其上限。

 最後,我國業者為尋求免於國際反托拉斯追究之「庇護所」,未來可能會將反競爭行為移往中國大陸, 而歐美下一波執法的活動也不會手軟,國人也不會容許公平會不聞不問。如此一來勢必牽動兩岸競爭法執法上的互動,然而對岸的競爭法剛在起步階段,執法機關沒 有整合,執法對象又多以國企或黨營企業為主,因此在競爭法的互動中,兩岸可能先要克服許多困難,才能談到合作,公平會對此做好準備了嗎?

2010年12月11日 星期六




在緊接著美牛風暴而來的ECFA談判過程中,馬政府雖仍堅持祕密談判,但在政策行銷上卻大有改進,政府官員不但常向國會簡報談判進度,也在各地舉辦座談會 向民眾釋疑,馬英九自己更親上火線,答應跟蔡英文辯論;因為有這些積極主動的政策行銷作為,最後才獲得六成民意支持ECFA的簽訂;也可以說,ECFA能 順利簽訂,乃是因為馬政府從美牛風暴中學到了慘痛教訓。





對民眾而言,二代健保跟他們的關係,比ECFA跟他們的關係更有相關性,按理說,馬政府推二代健保,應該比推ECFA付出更多努力才對;如果馬政府能記取 歷史教訓,採用ECFA的決策與政策行銷模式,先取得民意支持,再挾民意以說服國會,二代健保雖仍可能遭到反彈,卻絕不至於會以失敗收場。