Neuromarketing is a new field of marketing which uses medical technologies such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to study the brain's responses to marketing stimuli. Researchers use the fMRI to measure changes in activity in parts of the brain and to learn why consumers make the decisions they do, and what part of the brain is telling them to do it.
Marketing analysts will use neuromarketing to better measure a consumer's preference, as the verbal response given to the question "Do you like this product?" may not always be the true answer. This knowledge will help marketers create products and services designed more effectively and marketing campaigns focused more on the brain's response.
Neuromarketing will tell the marketer what the consumer reacts to, whether it was the color of the packaging, the sound the box makes when shaken, or the idea that they will have something their co-consumers do not.
The word "neuromarketing" was coined by in 2002
One of the main psychology principles behind marketing is the concept of priming. Priming a subject with a certain topic such as "dog" sets off an electrochemical reaction in the neural frameworks that code for dogs. Subsequent exposure to dog-related stimuli is processed faster because of the electrochemical priming.
Assimilation is the process by which new information is assimilated or incorporated into ones' existing neural structures. Advertising agencies know how important it is to repeat their messages so that priming and assimilation can take place. Priming usually occurs without the conscious awareness of the individual, even though the subsequent behavior of the individual may be altered by the priming.
Coke vs. Pepsi
In a study from the group of Read Montague, the director of the Human Neuroimaging Lab and the Center for Theoretical Neuroscience at Baylor College of Medicine, published in 2004 in Neuron, 67 people had their brains scanned while being given the "Pepsi Challenge", a blind taste test of Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Half the subjects choose Pepsi, and Pepsi tended to produce a stronger response than Coke in the brain's ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region thought to process feelings of reward. But when the subjects were told they were drinking Coke three-fourths said that Coke tasted better. Their brain activity had also changed. The lateral prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that scientists say governs high-level cognitive powers, and the hippocampus, an area related to memory, were now being used, indicating that the consumers were thinking about Coke and relating it to memories and other impressions. The results demonstrated that Pepsi should have half the market share, but in reality consumers are buying Coke for reasons related less to their taste preferences and more to their experience with the Coke brand. However, it should be noted that Pepsi is sweeter than Coke, and thus may do better in taste tests where only a small sample is given. Many people who prefer small amounts of Pepsi would probably rather consume an entire can of Coke to a can of Pepsi because people often grow tired of very sweet flavors.
- ^ David Lewis & Darren Brigder (July/August 2005). "Market Researchers make Increasing use of Brain Imaging". 5 (3): 35+.
- ^ Samuel M. McClure, Jian Li, Damon Tomlin, Kim S. Cypert, Latané M. Montague, and P. Read Montague (2004). "Neural Correlates of Behavioral Preference for Culturally Familiar Drinks". Neuron 44: 379–387.
- Neuromarketing: Is It Comping to a Lab Near You?. PBS (Frontline, "The Persuaders"). Retrieved on . (November 2004).
- Media Maze: Neuromarketing, Part I
- Commercial Alert's page on neuromarketing
- The practical approach for marketers
经济纵横 | 2008.08.16
对一名测试人进行观察并用脑电图做显示发现，如果他做决定是否购一份音乐作品时，价格从原先的1元降到了43分，他很快便做出购买的决定， 这是，脑电图显示出他特别强的快感。如果价格不是从1元下降的，而是从50分，测试者做决定需要的时间便长些，购买后的快感也相对小些。于是，在现实生活 中，你会在商店里到处看到一个商品标价时，总是原价也写在那里，为的是让人们看到原价同现价之间的区别，买起来更易下手，买后更有快感。