2012年12月28日 星期五

筆談”Nike 在中國"/ Adidas eyes record revenues in the next few years

Adidas Neo Store in Hamburg, Germany, with a running shoe in the foreground


Adidas eyes record revenues in the next few years

German sports gear maker Adidas has said it's aiming to log record revenue in 2012 and in the next few years. The company has brushed aside accusations it would tolerate sub-standard wages at Asian facilities.
Sports equipment maker Adidas said on Thursday that it was hoping to log record sales this year and beyond. CEO Herbert Hainer told the Süddeutsche Zeitung daily that revenue for 2013 would exceed 14.5 billion euros ($19.2 billion), marking a nine percent rise from last year's levels. He said sales volumes could rise to 17 million euros annually by 2017.
"But the eurozone debt crisis is making it harder for us to achieve our objectives," Hainer said. "The high unemployment rate and the economic woes especially in southern Europe aren't particularly helpful."
He added, though, that business was brisk in the US, Russia and China. Hainer stated that the German company's sales would be boosted further next year though the introduction of a new generation of running shoes that could see the firm grow despite the lack of major international sporting events.
'Legal' wage levels
Adidas' chief executive rejected accusations leveled against the company by human rights organizations, claiming that it was using Asian suppliers who pay their workers unacceptably low wages.
"Our suppliers all stick to relevant minimum wage stipulations," Hainer said. "The respective governments - be they democratically elected or not – define the minimum wages, and we stick to the rules, but we can't assume the role of a world policeman."
Hainer added that parts of the textile production cycle had been moving closer to home lately, with many items now being manufactured in Turkey or southern European states. "From there, we can deliver our products to the whole of Europe within 48 to 72 hours."
On the other hand, he said that there was no such trend back to Europe when it came to producing shoes. Hainer explained that the whole expertise in that sector had long moved to Asia, and the development couldn't be quickly reversed.
hg/pfd (dpa, AFP, Reuters)

2012.9.30 筆談”Nike 在中國"
很久沒和基弘Weilly Chen筆談”Nike 在中國。謝謝他的寶貴時間。
me: FT: 耐克在华新订单减少
Chen: yes. 這代表全世界景氣仍在谷底盤旋
Chen: Nike每賣2雙到中國, 有一雙遭到退貨.
me: 怎一回事?
Chen: Nike鞋子在中國的定價比較高, 中國人也都把Nike牌子當成像Prada之類的精品在看待.這個觀點而言, 可謂誤會. 運動鞋並非精品,具體地說, 運動鞋乃一消耗品.再來, 中國政府的6個月內可退貨原則對運動鞋極為挑戰.天天都穿並從事大量戶外運動的話,不可能6個月內長保如新.
me: 各種產品都6月內可退役貨? 其他各國呢?
Chen: 美國也是這樣, 但美國消費者成熟度比較高, 不會亂退. PradaGucci等牌子在中國也是被客訴地很慘.
me: 很妙不過其他廠牌因價稍低問題稍小?
Chen: 當然價格低一點消費者就比較能接受品質差一點.一分錢一分貨嘛.
me: 退貨轉賣到零賣管道?
Chen: 外觀上的問題才能轉到outlet以次級品價格賣出.
另外的問題是中國消費者會穿同一雙鞋子從事所有的活動, 從走路到打球, 並且他們會手洗鞋子, 放在太陽下曝曬. 沒有任何鞋子經得起長期這樣摧殘.
me: 有退貨就虧本啦? 有沒有一直在"試穿/"的顧客?
Chen: 我想多少存在一些澳客. 中國區消費者對鞋子的品質觀點和Nike所認定有很大的誤會
me: 這很妙應該教育顧客
問題是Nike似乎一直不願正視此問題. 好像宥於全球的品牌政策云云. 我常看到Adidas的鞋子上面有吊牌標示若干穿著限制, Nike的法務說這樣不行
me: 寶成自己的品牌和銷售網呢?
這是好問題, 我不是很清楚我們自己的通路對品質的反應為何? 可以問一下
me: 這牽涉到美國的法律解釋 很有意思.
Chen: 我猜更多是大公司內自掃門前雪吧
me: 今天談的可公布嗎?
Chen:…….不要談. 其餘應該不算秘密.
me: 了解 謝謝 case很多人一定覺得好完中國區的主管不能斷然用自己方式處?

Chen: 現在Nike鞋子要價甚高. 我們所生產的鞋子最貴要價315美金一雙. 我可以理解消費者的確會把鞋子當精品, 因為他是用買精品的價格
我個人的理解會是, 假如我是中國區總裁, 銷售不良時, 我會抱怨這是製造部門的品質不良造成的. 然後講一些price, value, customer satisfaction的大道理, 結果只是要說, 這不是我的問題, 我是受害者.
me: 對超過100元就是中國的天價 中國不知有沒香港般的全Nike旗艦店?
中國有Nike旗艦店. 我去過上海的那一間. 就位於南京路徒步區. 旁邊也的確都是些精品店

2012年12月26日 星期三

2012 年技術大新聞中的數字

Public network: Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg rings the opening bell on May 18, the first day the company’s stock began trading on the Nasdaq exchange.
A few of the top technology stories of 2012 stand out for the big numbers they generated. Here are some of the events and trends that were especially dramatic in scale.

Facebook’s big yearMark Zuckerberg’s Harvard dorm room project finally hit the big leagues in May, when the company began selling shares of its stock on the Nasdaq exchange for $38, valuing the company at $104 billion. After a small uptick on the first day of trading, the stock price plunged over the next several months, dropping below $18 in September. It has since rebounded above $26, however, making the company’s market capitalization nearly $60 billion.
Between the May 18 IPO and early October, meanwhile, the social network added 100 million more users, bringing its total to a billion, dwarfing the other big networks. Twitter, for comparison, recently announced that it now has 200 million active users.
Mobile goes global
Global smartphone shipments will increase by 45.1 percent this year over last, forecasts market research firm IDC, to 717.5 million units (out of 1.7 billion total mobile phones). A big portion of that growth happened in China, which IDC expects to account for 26.5 percent of the global smartphone market, rising from 18.3 percent last year and surpassing the U.S. as the world’s biggest market.
Android was by far the dominant operating system on smartphones shipped in 2012, claiming 68.3 percent of the market, says IDC.
Samsung, which makes a series of Android phones covering a fairly wide price range, was the world’s leader in shipments this year. Market research firm IHS iSuppli projects Samsung will have accounted for 28 percent of new smartphone shipments in 2012, with Apple in second place at 20 percent. In 2011, Samsung’s share was 20 percent, to Apple’s 19 percent.
The tablet market also greatly expanded in 2012. Gartner projects 136 million shipments in 2012—up from 55 million in 2011. Apple still dominates this area, but competitors like Samsung and Amazon are having increasing success.
Overall, IDC says smartphones and tablets will represent 70 percent of the 1.2 billion “smart connected devices” shipped in 2012, with desktop and portable PCs combining for the remaining 30 percent.
As of November, 13 percent of all Internet traffic was headed to or from mobile devices.
Shale oil shifts the energy status quo
We’ve known for several years now that shale oil resources, easier to extract thanks to the emergence of fracking and horizontal drilling techniques, would change the energy map. But in 2012, the repercussions of the boom in unconventional oil production, especially in the United States, became more clear. In its annual World Energy Outlook, released in November, the International Energy Agency projected that by 2020 the U.S. would surpass Saudi Arabia as the world’s largest oil producer. In that year, the IEA projects, the U.S. will produce 11.1 million barrels of oil per day. The U.S. hasn’t produced more than 10 million barrels per day since the mid 1980s. Production fell as low as 6.9 million barrels per day in 2008.
The glut of shale gas in the U.S. means it’s cheap, making it more attractive to utilities as a source of electricity. Historically, coal has been the dominant electricity source in the U.S., but in late 2011 it dropped below 40 percent of the total generation mix for the first time since 1978. In April of this year, contributions from coal and natural gas were equal—both around one third of the total, according to the Energy Information Agency.
Since natural gas burns cleaner than coal, the result has been a small decrease in U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. This year the IEA reported that in 2011, energy-related emissions in the U.S. dropped 1.7 percent, thanks to increased use of natural gas and a mild winter. Meanwhile, the Energy Information Agency reported that energy-related emissions for the first three months of 2012—amounting to around 1.3 billion metric tons—were the lowest for this period since 1992.
The rise of the MOOCs
This year will be remembered for lots of talk about the promise of massive open online courses, or MOOCs. Six colleges—MIT, Harvard, University of California-Berkeley, Georgetown, Wellesley, and the University of Texas—have teamed up to form the most high-profile example, called edX. A physics MOOC offered at MIT this spring drew 155,000 people from around the world, although only 7,000 finished the class.
Startup companies are getting into the mix as well. Coursera, founded by artificial-intelligence researchers, offers 210 college courses and boasts over two million “Courserians.” And Udacity, started by a team of roboticists including Google fellow Sebastian Thrun, offers 19 courses and so far has drawn 460,000 students.
Awash in genomic dataGenomic sequencing just keeps getting cheaper. As of January 2012, it cost an average of $7,666 to sequence an entire genome, down from $20,963 in January 2011, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute. And as sequencing begins to have more applications in medical research, a new challenge is coming into focus: how to store and transfer all the information that sequencing generates and get it into a form that is usable for doctors and researchers. In March, an international research effort called the 1000 Genomes Project made its dataset—which at the time amounted to 200 terabytes—available to the public via Amazon Web Services cloud storage. That’s the equivalent of more than 30,000 standard DVDs.
Big data gets bigger
Big data might have been the biggest technology-related buzzword of 2012. The amount of digital information created or replicated grew to 2.8 zettabytes (a zettabyte is a trillion gigabytes), up from 1.8 zettabytes in 2011, according to IDC. That’s obviously a big amount of data. But to be “big data” it has to be useful, and IDC says that in 2012, only 23 percent of all the information created or replicated in 2012 would be useful “if it were tagged and analyzed,” and that “only 3 percent of the potentially useful data is tagged, and even less analyzed.” Of the potentially useful data, nearly half is surveillance footage.

2012年12月25日 星期二

7-Eleven 美日, Wyse 或 Skylark 公司 假 CEOs 歸宿

 改善油電經營虧損 有請企業CEO

內外問題夾攻,外界批評聲浪不斷,為了平息民怨,經濟部終於決定,要籌設「台電和中油公司經營改善小組」,邀集中鋼前董事長王鍾渝、全國工總理事長陳武 雄,以及中華經濟研究院董事長梁啟源等企業CEO和學者,為兩大國營事業進行大體檢,包括採購制度、經營效率,還有最受質疑的人事制度,都將一一檢討。

7-Eleven Shifts Focus to Healthier Food Options

The convenience store chain turned to fresh foods to offset increased competition from other outlets and declines in cigarette sales.

 現在東京,單身族的冰箱實際上就在便利商店裡,自己住的小公寓,只有一個迷你冰箱放些飲料, 7-ELEVEN 離住家只有 100 公尺 ,要買什麼出就是,這就是為什麼近年來日本都會區的連鎖家庭餐廳,像是Danny's Kitchen或是 Skylark ,紛紛不支倒地。

對於我們這一代的人 慧智公司創業三十年的如此歸宿 或可懷念

Dell Inc. agreed to acquire privately held Wyse Technology Inc., the latest move by the computer maker to expand its offerings for business customers.
Financial terms weren't disclosed. Dell expects the deal to close in the second quarter and said it should add to earnings in the second half of fiscal 2013.
Wyse provides software and hardware that play into the trend called cloud computing. The company, founded in 1981, originally was known for desktop terminals that could take the place of personal computers. Wyse said it has shipped more than 20 million of the devices it now calls thin ...

The Sony Building /年虧損/ 醜聞世界級的公司/經建會地位每下愈況

Future of Corporate Tower May Hinge on a New Use

The Sony Building on Madison Avenue is in a neighborhood now seen as too expensive for a corporate headquarters.

 2012.3.31奇美電(3481)去年第4季財報終於出爐,一如預 期,單季賠掉200億元,累計全年慘虧647億元、每股淨損8.81元。而台灣面板廠去年合計虧損高達1,461億元,超過其餘3大慘業-DRAM、 LED和太陽能的總和(約1,200億元),直逼2008年DRAM產業大虧1,592億元的紀錄。

前一陣子收看某財經節目,主持人說經建會的主委地位每下愈況,開會時部長級的人都不參加了。想當年趙耀東等當家時是何景象? 前些時,劉憶如還跑去跟友達的李董開會近一小時:李先生對記者說,他們挺得住這不景氣,另外一家對手可能…….隔天據說奇美電的股價慘跌…..


曾幾何時 台灣的廠商如友達等 年虧損金額是世界級的
現在只希望醜聞不要像記住那位貪腐的國民黨高官/皮條客:320億還嫌少?憶 420億元

日本Olympus 公司的諾貝爾經濟學獎者Robert Mundell醜聞

Nobel Economist Served on Olympus Board
Olympus added its first-ever outside directors in 2005, shortly before making four acquisitions that have engulfed the camera maker in controversy. Among the outside directors was Nobel-laureate economist Robert Mundell.

Sony: Loss Will Top $1 Billion This Year
Stung by its long-struggling television business, Sony said it swung to a quarterly net loss and now expects to lose more than $1 billion this fiscal year; Kaz Hirai, heir apparent to CEO Howard Stringer, will lead the TV business's cost-slashing turnaround effort.

2012年12月24日 星期一

Google Alert for IBM

News10 new results for IBM
IBM Reports Nanotube Chip Breakthrough
New York Times (blog)
I.B.M. scientists are reporting progress in a chip making technology that is likely to ensure the shrinking of the size of the basic digital switch at the heart of modern microchips for more than another decade. The advance, first described in the ...
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New York Times (blog)
IBM Received Request From SEC Over Dealings With Iran, ZTE
International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) received a request from the Securities and Exchange Commission to describe its interactions with Iran, following reports that ZTE Corp. (000063) resold some IBM products in the country. IBM supplied ...
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IBM brings carbon nanotube-based computers a step closer
CNET (blog)
IBM's technique can arrange single carbon nanotubes -- and sometimes pairs -- between two electrical contacts. It's an essential part of making a transistor in which a nanotube leads from a source on one side to a drain on the other. At left in this is ...
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IBM Shrinking CPU Manufacturing Process Using Carbon Nanotubes
PC Magazine
You can currently pick up a CPU that's been designed using a "22 nanometer" process – which is to say, the width of each of the billions of tiny transistors on the chip measures far, far less than the width of a single piece of hair on your head. That ...
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IBM and CloudShare launch agile development platform
IBM and CloudShare recently announced their partnership to provide a pre-production, cloud-based agile development environment that you can setup in minutes. Ordinarily, it's an exaggeration to say, "Setup in minutes" but in the case of CloudShare's ...
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IBM Accelerates Big Data Analysis
It's a big week for big data, and IBM kicked off the news cycle Monday with bevy of related announcements from its annual Information On Demand conference in Las Vegas. IBM's BigInsight platform, InfoSphere Streams, a new appliance-based offering ...
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PC heyday's a memory, but IBM looks ahead in Boca
Palm Beach Post
From the PC to the technology behind Jeopardy champ Watson, IBM has had to reinvent itself many times since it sold tabulators, punch cards and meat and cheese slicers a century ago. By this year,IBM could say it has been granted more U.S. patents ...
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IBM refreshes analysis offerings
IDG News Service - At IBM's Information On Demand and Business Analytics Forum, being held this week in Las Vegas, the company announced a number of new add-ons and services designed to help organizations analyze their expanding data sets more ...
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IBM: Big data is the new natural resource
IBM senior vice president and group executive Steve Mills explained in a blog post on Monday that big data has become a valuable natural resource "in large part to the economics around lower computing costs and the enormous advancements we've made ...
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IBM Best In The Business At Acquisitions Says SVP
“At IBM, integrating acquisitions is one of the things we specialize in. We are as good as anyone in the world,” he said on Friday. He was speaking ahead of this week's IBM Information On Demand & Business Analytics Forum in Las Vegas which will ...
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Smarter Governments Need Smarter Benefits and Services
The Atlantic
One thing that is often overlooked in the conversation about the size and role of government is making sure that the benefits and services that are delivered actually achieve a result at an affordable level. All too often, benefits and services are ...
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The Atlantic
IBM Eyes Enterprise Social Biz
IBM Software is readying channels to sell its social business tools for the SMB and enterprise market. Promoted as a technology which takes collaboration tools beyond email, IBM is pitching IBM Connections, a software suite that helps business users ...
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IBM Contends With Angry Judge In Bribery Case
All Things Digital
What was supposed to have been a straightforward settlement of old bribery charges with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has for IBM turned into a peculiar battle of wills with a U.S. District Court Judge. Last year, you may remember, Big ...
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Will IBM Top the Dow in 2013?
Motley Fool
As December comes to a close, 2013 is just around the corner, and it's a good time to look at the future prospects for the stocks you own. If you don't know where a company's headed in the next year and beyond, then it's impossible to make an informed ...
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President Obama Honors IBM Scientists with National Medal of Technology and ...
WebWire (press release)
WASHINGTON, D.C. - President Obama recognized a team of three IBM (NYSE: IBM) scientists -- James J. Wynne, Rangaswamy Srinivasan and Samuel Blum -- with the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the country's most prestigious award ...
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IBM wants your next computer to think (and sense) like you
Digital Trends
For the last seven years, computing giant IBM has released The Five in Five, its forecast of technologies and innovations that its researchers believes will come to pass in five years' time. This year, IBM is has done something unusual. Instead of ...
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Judge Won't Approve IBM, SEC Bribery Settlement
Fox Business
The SEC and IBM reached an agreement in March to settle civil charges that IBM bribed South Korean and Chinese government officials for more than decade with cash payments, gifts and travel in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The company ...
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IBM Security Access Manager 7.0 Now Available
The new release, known as ISAM 7.0, is now available as an appliance, IBM said in a recent blog post. ISAM 7.0—no, not the old Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM) for mainframes—is a scalable and configurable Web access management solution ...
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Topeka Capital Initates Coverage on IBM at “Buy”; +26% Upside (IBM)
Dividend.com (blog)
Topeka Capital commented, “Although we expect relatively modest IT spending growth in 2013, we believe IBM's portfolio plays into the key secular IT trends such cloud computing, Big Data and the broader trend toward analytics with broader portfolio of ...
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Dividend.com (blog)
IBM To Acquire StoredIQ for Big Data Capabilities
Data Center Knowledge (blog)
Adding to IBM's big data initiatives the StoredIQ capabilities will help clients respond more efficiently to litigation and regulations, dispose of information that has outlived its purpose and lower data storage costs. It will add to IBM's Information ...
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Zara (Inditex 公司品牌) 如何瘋長為全球最大時裝零售商

時尚 NYT


Pedro Guimarães for The New York Times
在西班牙阿特索的一家工廠里,Zara 2012秋季系列的一款外套正在等候檢查。

加利西亞位於西班牙北部的大西洋沿岸,是弗朗西斯科·佛朗哥(Francisco Franco)大元帥的故鄉,不過除此之外它是出了名的沒人待見,生活在這裡的人都想往外跑。在20世紀的大部分時間裡,農村的貧瘠狀況驅使數十萬“加耶 戈人”(gallegos),也就是加利西亞人,背井離鄉,最遠都到阿根廷了。然而在今天,西班牙經濟面臨崩潰的之際,加利西亞城市拉科魯尼亞卻吸引了人 們的注意,因為它是全球排名第三的富豪、時裝公司Inditex創始人阿曼西奧·奧爾特加·高納(Amancio Ortega Gaona)的故鄉,在今年的彭博全球億萬富豪指數(Bloomberg billionaire index)排行榜上,他取代了沃倫·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)的位置。Inditex是一家極為成功的公司,它旗下最大、歷史最悠久的品牌就是更為人們所熟知的Zara。

Inditex公司傳播部表示,奧爾特加從來不接受記者採訪,也不出席頒獎典禮或聚會,而且極少同意拍照。去年,76歲的奧爾特加從董事長位置退 休,接替他成為Inditex掌門人的帕布羅·伊薩拉(Pablo Isla)也同樣極少接受採訪和拍照。實際上,代表Inditex集團公眾形象的人是其傳播總監赫蘇斯·埃切維里亞(Jesus Echevarría),此人說話輕聲細語,而且我在最近造訪Inditex總部時發現,每當要回答跟該公司飛黃騰達有關的問題時,埃切維里亞基本上都會 道歉,這樣的傳播總監也許地球上只有他一個。
這種低調的形象折射了Inditex周圍的環境。拉科魯尼亞非常安靜,呈現出歐洲城市那種典型的單調乏味的美好景象:整潔的公路、小巧的轎車、乾淨 的的士,無需擔心小費問題。在我7月下旬造訪Inditex的那周里,西班牙保守派政府聲稱要實施一個新的財政緊縮計劃,30歲以下人口的失業率達到了 50%,但這個城市顯得波瀾不興。餐館裡生意繁忙,海灘上的人密密麻麻。人們在拉科魯尼亞海邊的巨石上小睡,狗兒在水裡跳躍。這座城市距馬德里300英里 出頭,離巴塞羅那555英里,對於Inditex這樣一家積極進取的全球性公司來說,把總部設在拉科魯尼亞真是有些奇怪。

公司園區(位於和拉科魯尼亞毗鄰的阿特索工業區)由Inditex整個公司的總部以及它旗下八個品牌中的兩個——Zara和Zara Home——的總部組成。還有一些工廠和一個配送中心,生產好的衣服就是在配送中心裝上卡車,發往世界各地的。工廠則在公司辦公樓的正對面。我在主樓里等 候接待我的人時,覺得那裡有點像醫院的候診室,除了幾排四四方方的普通黑色椅子外,別的就沒什麼了。白色的牆壁上幾乎沒有裝飾,只有一幅時裝模特的海報。 沒有鮮花,沒有標語,沒有廣告,沒有時尚雜誌,沒有格調。這樣的布置感覺很適合緊縮時期,雖則Inditex是西班牙少有的正在蒸蒸日上的公司。

Inditex是“快時尚”(fast fashion)的先驅之一,這類公司基本上是模仿最新時裝款式,然後快速在店面里以更便宜的價格出售它們。Inditex旗下的所有品牌——Zara、 Zara Home、Bershka、Massimo Dutti、Oysho、Stradivarius、Pull & Bear和Uterqüe——都遵循了Zara模式:在美輪美奐的高端店面里出售時髦、做工得體,但價格低廉的產品。Zara的價格跟Gap相差不大:外 套200美元,毛衣70美元,T恤30美元。

Inditex公司現在每年生產服裝8.4億件,在85個國家和地區擁有約5900家門店,不過這個數字一直在不斷變化中,因為最近幾年 來,Inditex每年新增門店500家,平均每天新開門店一家以上。現在它在歐洲大約有4400家門店,僅西班牙就有差不多2000家。Inditex 的主要競爭對手們被它遠遠甩在了後面。Topshop所屬的阿卡迪亞集團(Arcadia Group)在全世界擁有門店約3000,瑞典的H&M約有2500家(包括那種較小的店面),西班牙的Mango有2400家。
在Inditex總部的一間會議室里,埃切維里亞為我做了一個有關該公司的多媒體演示。Inditex在各國的門店數量在屏幕上彈出——中國289 家,美國45家。當時是7月下旬,現在Inditex在中國的門店數量已經增加到了350家,在美國則新增了一家。Inditex的擴張步伐就像季節更替 一樣不可阻擋,但它能歷經擴張而不倒嗎?


Inditex的創業故事開始於1963年,奧爾特加是一個鐵路工人的兒子,那年他開始在拉科魯尼亞生產家居長袍。1975年時,他在城裡開了一家門店,取名為Zorba,這個名字來源於1964年的電影《希臘人佐巴》 (Zorba the Greek)。

埃切維里亞說:“我倒不覺得他們是想創造歷史,他們只不過覺得Zorba是個好名字。但當時有一間酒吧也叫這個名字,相距只有兩個街區遠,酒吧老闆 過來說‘兩家店都叫Zorba會讓人搞混的’。酒吧已經給招牌上的字母做好模子了,所以他們只好重新想名字,就這樣改叫了Zara。”Inditex控股 公司創立於1985年。


但是在Inditex公司,比如說,它的一個品牌設計了一個秋季系列,然後每個款式只會發三、四件連衣裙、或襯衫、或夾克到一家門店。庫存餘貨非常少,超小號或中號基本不會剩下。但如果顧客有需要,門店經理可以申請多發貨。他們還會記錄顧客的反應,看看他們買了什麼,沒買什麼,以及他們跟銷售員說了 什麼,比如“我喜歡這個挖領”或“我討厭腳踝部位有拉鏈”。Inditex公司說,他們的銷售人員受過培訓,知道如何從顧客那裡收集這類評語。每一天,門 店經理都把這些信息彙報給總部,總部再把它們發送到一個龐大的內部設計團隊那裡,然後設計師們快速開發出新的設計,並把設計發送給工廠,製作出衣服。

Inditex一半以上的產品都是在它自己的工廠里,或者鄰近總部的工廠里生產的,後者是指歐洲和北非的工廠。Inditex在西班牙有自己的工廠,而且把生產外包給葡萄牙、摩洛哥和土耳其的工廠——這些地方的人工成本通常比較高。其餘的衣服則在中國、孟加拉國、越南和巴西等國生產。但是,最新潮 的產品放在離家最近的地方生產,使得整個生產過程從頭到尾只需三個星期。因此,更大的靈活性——沒有額外的庫存——和更快的周轉速度,彌補了較高的人工成 本。

這就意味着,如果在倫敦、東京和聖保羅的Inditex門店裡,顧客們對亮片深紅色熱褲反響熱烈,該公司就會製作更多的這種熱褲,或者是對亮片和深紅色稍微加以變化,在三個星期內送達門店。Inditex 希望保持門店產品的新鮮度,其門店向顧客做出的一個承諾就是,你在這裡買到的產品幾乎總是獨一無 二的。即使是以“快時尚”的標準來說,Inditex產品在供應鏈中移動的速度也快得驚人。數千家Inditex門店每家每周都會接收兩次新貨。

馬蘇德·戈爾蘇克哈(Masoud Golsorkhi)是倫敦文化時尚雜誌《Tank》的編輯,他說,Inditex公司已經通過這種方式完全改變了人們的消費行為。

“如果你10月份去古琦(Gucci)或香奈兒(Chanel)專賣店,你知道那些衣服很可能明年2月還在那裡,”他說,“但當你去Zara門店 時,你知道,如果你不當場就買下它的話,那麼在11天之內,那裡的衣服就完全換成新的了。一款衣服你要麼現在就買,要麼再也買不到。由於它的價格如此之 低,你往往會選擇現在就買。”

Inditex的成功和廣告無關,因為該公司不做廣告。它甚至沒有專門的營銷部門,而且它也不像競爭對手那樣,跟時裝設計師斯黛拉·麥卡特尼 (Stella McCartney)、卡爾·拉格菲爾德(Karl Lagerfeld)、馬丁·馬吉拉(Martin Margiela)和瑪尼(Marni)合作,開展華麗的宣傳活動。Zara的設計師完全是匿名的;有些人也許會說,這是因為他們並非設計師,而是效仿 者。

“商業街確實是根據品牌價值來劃分地段的,”戈爾蘇克哈說,他也是一位時尚品牌顧問,“普拉達(Prada)希望把專賣店設在古琦旁邊,古琦也希望 跟普拉達比鄰而居,奢侈品牌的零售策略之一就是跟Zara這樣的品牌保持盡量遠的距離。而Zara的策略則是儘可能地靠近它們。”

例如在伊斯坦布爾,我居住的地方,你可以在車水馬龍的時尚地帶悌什維基葉街看到Zara、Uterqüe和Massimo Dutti,它們跟卡地亞(Cartier)、愛馬仕(Hermès)和香奈兒僅一街之隔。而在尋找高價值物業方面,Inditex的大手筆遠不止這一 點。2003年,Inditex在薩拉曼卡的一座18世紀修道院——聖安東尼奧皇家修道院,以及埃爾切(也在西班牙)一處歷史悠久的電影院里分別開設了 Zara門店。Inditex喜歡不同尋常的建築。該公司表示,去年它斥資3.24億美元在紐約第五大道666號置業,這座聞名遐邇的建築是曼哈頓有史以 來售價最高的物業。


在過去的五年中,Inditex公司的年銷售額從94億歐元增長至138億歐元,年利潤上升到差不多20億歐元,員工人數也從2007年的8萬左右 增長到2011年到11萬名。簡而言之,雖然西班牙至今仍在經受房地產和債務危機(繼全球金融危機之後)的煎熬,Inditex公司卻在蓬勃發展。埃切維 里亞說,這是因為Inditex的生產永遠是由顧客來決定 ——而不是相反。該公司生產的每一件衣服,從某種程度上說,都是應顧客要求生產的。這種如此貼合顧客需要的商業模式不受金融危機周期的影響。

最近幾年,快時尚也變得更加入時,甚至像凱特·米德爾頓(Kate Middleton)這樣的名人也被拍到過身着Zara衣服的照片。“這是零售市場的整體發展方向——而不僅僅是Zara。”倫敦諮詢公司Planet Retail高級分析師伊莎貝爾·卡維爾(Isabel Cavill)說,“花上50英鎊,買一件看起來像500英鎊的東西,這是有點值得驕傲的事情。”如果有人恭維你的衣服很好,你可以自豪地吹噓說你幾乎沒 有花錢。

H&M和Mango正在加快步伐,試圖趕上Zara的節奏。但是“Inditex效應”並不局限在快速更迭的廉價時裝上。它已經迫使人們以 不同的方式消費服裝,或者說是一種啟發——取決於你站在什麼角度去看。在Zara門店裡,人們的購買行為都是衝動型的。他們不再為櫥窗里華麗的皮外套存錢 了。你買衣服不是因為你喜歡它們,而是因為這些熱褲只要50美元,星期天兩個人在星期天吃頓早午餐也會花這麼多錢——而且可能會在短短几天之內,你就再也 買不到它了。這種消費方式已經轉變了購物者的心態,現在他們期望更高端的品牌也可以提供這種最新潮的時尚性和多樣性。

“一年兩度的時尚周期已經持續了一個世紀之久,而Inditex打破了這個周期,”戈爾蘇克哈說:“現在,幾乎一半的高端時裝公司”——比如普拉達和路易威登(Louis Vuitton)——“每年推出四到六個系列,而不再是兩個,這絕對是因為Zara。”

Inditex旗下品牌的時尚存在周期之短,令人頭暈目眩,在這個周期里,最新潮流似乎在一個女人接受它之後幾小時內就會枯萎。陪我參觀 Inditex工作場所的公關部員工——她希望我不要透露她的姓名,大概是在遵循Inditex的低調原則——穿着一條面料有光澤、踝關節處有拉鏈的黑色 褲子,一件寬鬆的黃色上衣,以及一件後背採用倒V剪裁的黑色小西裝,看上去犀利而閃亮,就像是一把小折刀。而我自己,則穿着一條至少有六年歷史的連衣裙, 這基本上相當於我身着19世紀50年代的蓬蓬裙開始了快時尚之旅。

Zara總部是一個飛機庫般巨大的開放空間,中間一行桌子坐着區域銷售經理,他們兩側是設計師。經理們打電話到中國或智利,了解產品的銷售情況,然後跟設計師開會,判斷是否出現了某種潮流。採用這種方法,Inditex 公司掌握了全球時尚的脈搏。“經理們會說:‘我那裡的顧客想要紅色褲子,’如果伊 斯坦布爾、紐約和東京也出現了相同的需求,就意味着這是一個全球性的潮流,因此他們就明白該產生更多的紅色褲子了。”這名公關部員工說。



此前,埃切維里亞告訴過我,潮流更多地是按街區而不是按國家劃分的。例如,紐約市中心第五大道商店的潮流“跟東京銀座的商店更相似,都是高端消費區 和旅遊景點,”他說, “紐約蘇荷商業區和東京澀谷區的潮流更接近,都非常時髦,受年輕人歡迎。布魯克林現在是一個非常新潮的購物去處,而市中心——現在沒有哪個紐約本地人會去 第五大道購物了。”他的意思是,五大道購物的顧客是來自郊區的遊客。

我記起不久之前,我從布魯克林回到我居住的伊斯坦布爾時尚街區,發現很多土耳其人也戴着巨大的圍巾,在脖子上繞了八圈。時尚潮流在全球傳播的速度之快讓我感到驚訝,因為我沒看到有很多土耳其人在閱讀時尚雜誌,但告訴我們應該怎麼穿着的不只是雜誌,還有像奧爾特加這樣的人,或者,更準確地說,是我們通 過他的Inditex門店以及其他類似渠道告訴了彼此。

在這次快時尚之旅中,我還參觀了Zara和Zara Home總部里的模擬門店,那裡擺放着即將在全球推出秋裝系列。

秋裝系列中出現了大量黃銅色鉚釘、迷彩、骷髏頭圖案、白色蕾絲襯衫和動物圖案印花。這位公關部員工說,它們“從上一季開始就很流行,而且會持續一段 時間,但到聖誕節就會結束”。有些潮流可以持續半年時間,但有些只有一個月壽命。“他們曾以為動物圖案到夏天就不會再流行了,但它卻持續了下來,”她說, “在本季開始時,熒光色流行起來,成了4月和5月的一股潮流,十分暢銷,但它也就只流行了那麼一陣子。”

在帶我參觀Zara Home時,這位公關部職員說,它的經營方式跟服裝店是一樣的。(上個月,該公司在美國推出了Zarahome.com以 及更高端的服飾品牌Massimo Dutti。)我不太相信人們會像對待迷你裙一樣,扔掉舊的餐具和地毯再買新的。但她向我保證說現實情況就是這樣,特別是當這種做法很時髦的時候。(我注 意到Zara Home也採用了骷髏頭圖案。)然後我們去參觀童裝品牌Zara Kids。我突然覺得,這些鋪天蓋地的便宜服裝可能會結束嬰兒衣服“大孩子傳給小孩子”的習俗。當你只花25美元就可以買到新的(而且入時的)嬰兒衣服 時,為什麼還要去對付別人留下的舊衣服上的污漬呢?




Inditex公司否認它抄襲了其他設計師的設計。然而,在去年3月《紐約時報》上,亞歷山德拉·雅各布斯(Alexandra Jacobs)描述了她去紐約第五大道Zara新門店的經歷,說那裡的衣服讓她想起普拉達、王大仁(Alexander Wang)、巴爾曼(Balmain)和其他很多高端品牌。克里斯提·魯布托(Christian Louboutin)曾把Inditex告上法庭,指控它銷售該公司標誌性的紅底鞋,但最終卻敗訴了,主要是因為Inditex小心翼翼地修改了設計,剛好足以規避版權法。



哥倫比亞大學商學院教授尼爾森·弗萊曼(Nelson Fraiman)曾研究過Inditex模式,他說:“Inditex在流程創新方面做得非常好,在產品創新方面就不怎麼樣了。但是,中國也沒有哪家公司在產品創新上做得非常好,不過他們在流程方面卻非常高明。我想你應該為流程創新鼓鼓掌。”

但是,擴張也給Zara的流程帶來了威脅,因為他們需要在遠離歐洲工廠和物流中心的地方開設門店。埃切維里亞說,Zara在選擇開設門店的城市時非 常小心。還記得前面提到的幻燈片演示嗎?它顯示在美國只有45家Zara門店,而在其他國家有卻有數百家之多,這是有原因的:國外品牌在美國一敗塗地的歷 史相當悠久。

“美國是歐洲零售商的墓園,”馬德里IESE商學院市場營銷學教授何塞·路易斯·雷諾(José Luis Nueno)說:“每一個歐洲品牌在美國的業務都開展得不順利。羅蘭愛思(Laura Ashley)已經關門歇業,就連貝納通(Benetton)也在走下坡路。美國市場非常複雜,因為你需要把門店開設在偏遠的購物中心裡。時尚人群居住在東海岸和西海岸,其他人則在Gap專賣店、沃爾瑪和T. J. Maxx購買衣物。如果你真的想在美國發展,你就得開300家門店,而且為了經營下去,這些門店必須投入全副精力。”



然而,在中國的擴張會讓生產過程變得更加複雜,而且還需要大筆投資。該公司計劃在今年開設400多家門店。“一周只開三家店也已經是非常激進的 了,”弗萊曼說,“拉科魯尼亞工廠的快速應對能力是有限的。你開的店越來越多,及時響應的靈活性就會下降。Inditex 一旦在中國大舉推進,他們就必須在中國複製整個模式——響應顧客的流程、快速運作的設計團隊,物流平台。不過,弗萊曼說Inditex擴張得越大,它就對質量和效率的控制就會越差。

但是,亞洲仍然是Inditex擴張計劃的中心,而且,10億中國人以“快時尚”速度消費衣服的前景,也讓對這種模式持懷疑態度的人感到擔心。伊麗 莎白·克萊因(Elizabeth Cline)在《過度着裝:平價時尚的高昂代價》(Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion)中寫道,美國人每年購買200億件服裝,平均每人64件。如果中國人以同樣的速度消費服裝,每年的需求量就會達到800多億件。戈爾蘇克 哈說,快時尚並沒有改變的生產時裝所需的勞動力數量和生產過程中產生的浪費。新款熒光超短裙可能只花40美元就可以買到,但孟加拉工人仍然拿着很低的工資 在惡劣的環境下製作它們。Inditex公司說,它跟工會和其他組織合作,試圖打造“最尊重人的供應鏈”,而且每年都對所有合作夥伴進行稽核,但就像很多外包生產環節的大牌時裝公司一樣,它也收到了一些和代工廠工作條件有關的投訴。

“現實情況是:T恤就是T恤,”戈爾蘇克哈說,“不管你買它是花了200英鎊還是1英鎊,它給地球帶來的成本是一樣的,造成的損害是相同的。生產一 件T恤要使用700加侖的水,產生數加侖化學廢物,消耗大量人類勞動。但是,之前我們一年只需要3件T恤,現在卻變成了30件。有時候衣服的價格實在便 宜,清洗它們還不如扔掉另買新的。這種狀況肯定不對。”


“到最後,支撐‘快時尚’的資源就沒有了,所以在我看來,這是一種非常脆弱的商業模式,”倫敦時裝學院可持續時裝中心的商業和研究管理者亞歷克斯· 麥金托什(Alex McIntosh)說, “生產成本也會上漲,讓他們無法再維持這種模式。以價值為導向的公司沒有利潤來緩衝額外的成本,那時他們就需要說服顧客重新花更多的錢來購買衣服。”

我這次參觀的最後一個地方,是Inditex的一間工廠。據說這裡大約有100名工人;巨大的機器設備擔負了大量生產工作。數百件亮紅色的中長款大衣掛滿了廠房,差不多準備好出貨了。一行女工站在熨衣板前,熨平這些大衣的羊毛混紡面料,尋找瑕疵,並給衣服裝上防盜夾。這位公關部職員着重提到了最後一 條,因為Inditex公司發現,如果讓門店員工來裝防盜夾,這些新潮的紅色大衣就需要花上額外幾個小時的時間,才能從加利西亞進入你的衣櫃,這是 Inditex不能容忍的。

Suzy Hansen是駐伊斯坦布爾作者,她為紐約時報雜誌撰寫的上一篇文章是關於密西西比農村醫療健康

台電專業虧損超過1兆元 :" 輻射無害"愚民

虧損逾兆 奇異高價綁核電 台電福利金年破8億

台電虧損超過1兆元,但員工仍不忘享樂,每年電費收入還未扣除成本及償還債務前,就先提撥約8億元充當福利金,其中近1/4更花在娛樂活動上。 知情人士透露,為了核電廠興建工程,台電與奇異簽下不平等合約,同意所有設備都需透過奇異購買,才會造成核二廠新購6支螺栓,原始製造商只要價3,300萬元,但台電卻當冤大頭花了近1億元才取

  • 撰文 / 劉黎兒
  • 出處 / 今周刊835期


台電接連在捷運站外發送的《爽報》刊登輻射無害、台灣核電設計比日本好等謊言,看來還有續篇。我們應全力阻止台電花我們的稅金去刊登如此欺民的不實廣告, 不顧台灣核電耐震係數只有日本一半的事實,核四甚至不如釀災的福島核一。福島核災在歐洲引起連續廢核,連擁核大國美、法也積極減核,唯一最沒反省而想隻手 遮天,就是台電;更不可原諒的是連應守護國民身家安全的原能會官員在電視上也用這套說法,一副台電傳聲筒姿態,應加以彈劾。

台電以為仗著 能濫用稅金登廣告就能壟斷資訊,大舉洗腦,這種時代早就過去了。台灣核電全球最危險,國際專家、研究單位或知名科學刊物等從三一一後就一再警告,只有台灣 核電幫看到棺材還不流淚;原能會副主委硬說台灣核電宛如「菩薩坐在蓮花台上」,但相繼發現核二廠「蓮花台」的錨定螺栓斷裂,草草換六根無濟於事,早該停用 廢爐,否則每天還在威脅台灣人生命安全。